Knowledge and Mind:



A Philosophical Introduction





Andrew Brook



and



Robert J. Stainton





Acknowledgments v

Preface for Instructors vi

Chapter One: Introduction to Philosophy, Knowledge and Mind 1

1. Epistemology 1

2. Philosophy of Mind 4

3. Epilogue: Arguments, Philosophical and Otherwise 6

Study Questions 13

Suggested Further Readings 13

Part One: Knowledge 16

Chapter Two: Knowing the External World 17

1. A Skeptical Argument 17

2. Objections to External-world Skepticism, and Replies 22

Objection 1: Causes 23

Objection 2: Science 24

Objection 3: Ordinary Living 25

Objection 4: Direct Perceptual Realism 28

Objection 5: Meaninglessness 29

Study Questions 36

Suggested Further Readings 37

Chapter Three: Knowledge of Language 38

1. The Nature of Linguistic Knowledge 38

Chomsky on Linguistic Competence 39

An Objection to Chomsky's notion of Linguistic Competence 41

Some Replies on Chomsky's Behalf 43

About the Competence 46

2. The Acquisition of Linguistic Knowledge 48

Nativism Defended 49

Some Anti-Nativist Replies 53

3. Language and Thought 56

4. A Universal Language of Thought (LOT)? 62

5. Epilogue to Part One: The Nature and Methods of Philosophy 64

Study Questions 70

Suggested Further Readings 71

Part Two: Mind 73

Chapter Four: Mind and Body - The Metaphysics of Mind 74

1. Introduction: Conflicting Visions of the Mind 74

2. What Makes Something Mental? 85

Non-spatiality 86

Intentionality. 87

Special Access 89

Consciousness. 89

3. A Wealth of Positions 91

Dualism 92

Idealism 99

Materialism 101

Minds do exist 102

Minds do not exist 107

Study Questions 113

Suggested Further Readings 113

Chapter Five: Mind and Body - What Should We Believe? 119

1. Why has Dualism had such a Strong Appeal? 119

2. Four Arguments for Dualism 124

Mental state/brain state argument 126

Argument from intentionality 126

Conceivability argument 127

Indivisibility argument 128

3. Assessment of the Arguments 128

4. What Should We Believe? 134

5. Is the Mind Fundamentally a Symbol-Processor? 137

6. Do We Need to Study the Brain? 141

7. Why isn't Functionalism just Good Old Dualism in New Clothes? 142

8. Immortality Again: Can We Look Forward to Life After the Death of Our Body? 145

Study Questions 153

Suggested Further Readings 153

Chapter Six: Free Choice 156

1. A Preliminary Definition 157

2. Why Freedom of Choice Matters 158

3. Freedom of Decision and Freedom of Action 161

4. Positions and Distinctions 162

5. The Compatibilist Challenge 166

6. Compatibilists on Free Choice 168

7. Implications of compatibilism 172

8. First Objection: The Joys of Modality 175

9. Second Objection: Doesn't Compatibilism Leave Something Important Out? 178

Agent of choice 180

Reasons versus other kinds of cause 181

Trying or making an effort 182

10. Concluding Remarks 183

Study Questions 185

Suggested Further Readings 186

Part Three: Relating Knowledge to Mind 189

Chapter Seven: Knowledge of Minds 190

1. Introduction 190

2. The Problem of Other Minds 190

3. The Problem of Knowledge of Self 193

4. Weak, Stronger and Strongest Skepticism about Other Minds 195

5. Responses to the Problem 198

6. There is a Problem: The Argument from Analogy is the Solution 200

7. There is a Problem: Underlying Neurological Similarity is the Solution 203

8. There is no Problem: Identity Theory, Behaviorism, Wittgensteinianism 204

Identity Theory 204

Behaviorism 205

Wittgensteinianism 205

9. There is a Problem: Inference to the Best Explanation is the Solution 207

10. The Problem of Knowledge of Self 210

Study Questions 214

Suggested Further Readings 214

Chapter Eight: A New Approach to Knowledge and Mind 217

1. Are Philosophical Questions Different from Scientific Ones? 219

2. Naturalizing Epistemology 223

3. Naturalizing the Mind 228

4. Other Minds and Robots 237

5. Philosophy and Naturalism 243

6. Conclusion 246

Study Questions 248

Suggested Further Reading 249

Endnotes 250

Glossary 259

References 269