Awls, Gravers, Flexers, Spatulas, Needles & Beads

An awl ( b, d ) is a copper or bone hide-piercing tool. A graver is a flake with retouched corners for engraving wood or bone, its multi-directional or rotational use not often forming strial. A flexer has striae over its round end, indicating skin bending for softening as in chitho edges. They occur in all Dene phases on elongated tools such as points, knives, spokeshaves and the ends of bar whetstones. Similar to burnisher. A spatula ( c ) is a long antler, bone or wood spoon for extracting marrow. A needle ( a ), eyed or eyeless, is bone or copper and less than 10 cm long. A bead is a rolled copper (most frequently preserved) tube, or a drilled stone, wood, or bone tube.

Back to Index