This is a general account of tool use by all Beverly cultures. As all had to adapt to the same environment and caribou herd, most had similar tools while some tool traits were culturally specific and are underlined in the tables. For brevity, cultures from earliest to latest are abbreviated: Northern Plano NP, Shield Archaic; SA; Pre-Dorset or Arctic Small Tool ASTt; with Early, Middle and Late Taletheilei as ET, MT and LT.
Adze Family Comparison
Adzes, axes, chisels, gouges and picks and their flakes fall under the adze family because most are ground shock-resistant basalt with similar traits. All are culturally affiliated and most are excavated. Adzes are long asymmetric unifacial tools with bifacially retouched hafts for wood or antler socket insertion. Unlike axes, their bits are perpendicular to the handle and sharpened by chipping and grinding the ventral surface. Prepared striking platforms on this surface may have a groove cut parallel to the bit for governing sharpening flake removal. This groove identifies a sharpening flake and permits grinding or use striae orientation. Its curvature matches that of the bit, while a sharpening flake from an adze side has a straight platform and edge. An axe resembles an adze except its bit is inline with its split attached handle. It has a bifacial and symmetrical bit, haft and midsection. Unless hand-hafted, chisels are smaller and have uni- or bifacial bits. Gouges are channel-ground for grooving wood. Picks are crude pointed earth diggers. Specific adze family data and analysis can be found in Gordon (1996).
There are 165 adze family tools, 137 in the tundra and 28 in the forest: 12 adzes (7%), 134 adze flakes (81%), 12 axes (7%), 2 chisels (1%), 3 gouges (2%) and 2 picks (1%). More numerous forest adzes reflect not only winter wood use but conservation when valuable tundra-specific shock-resistant basalt was unavailable. As the tundra has half as many adzes but 9 times as many flakes, extensive shaping and weight reduction of heavy adzes occurred before hunters moved south for winter. Adzes are in NP (1), ASTt (5), ET (5) & LT (1), but flakes in NP (27), SA (2), ASTt (3), ET (48), MT (41) & LT (12) imply adzes were used by all. Each in turn turned to wood resources in the winter forest to make tools used over the year. LT descendants or historic Chipewyan used metal axes, picks and chisels that were traded for fur.
Flat-bottomed and often ridged, most adzes have longitudinally and transversely striated bits, sides and bottom from their preparation and use. Six adzes are striated, 5 tundra and 1 forest, the latter with only normal longitudinal striae. Tundra adzes have 3 types of striae: transverse, longitudinal/transverse and diagonal/longitidinal; i.e., from normal head-on adze application through oblique to side application. Complex manufacturing and later use wear resulted in sharpening flakes with 8 types of striae, with 78 of 134 eroded, leaving 56 for examination. 20 (36%) have transverse striae, 9 (16%) diagonal, 10 (18%) longitudinal, 3 each (5% each) for transverse/diagonal, transverse/diagonal/longitidinal, and non-orientable (due to damaged striking platforms), and 7 (13%) longitudinal & transverse.
Like adzes, forest adze flakes have fewer striae types, with complex patterns missing, perhaps because adzes were only used there. Longitudinal striae resulting from normal head-on adze use is alike in both ranges: 9 of 50 in tundra flakes (18%) vs. 1 of 6 in forest (17%). Tundra and forest flake transverse striae have frequencies of 34 & 50%, diagonal as 16 & 17%, longitudinal as 18 & 17% and transverse/diagonal as 4 & 17%. On strial angle alone, functional differences in tundra and forest adzes are unproven. Function relates to worn area size and depth, with heavy wide pressure resulting in extensive striae. 135 flakes have traits traceable to their removal from specific adze locations, with ET with the most representative flake types and LT & SA the least. Position and frequency are lateral (71%), bit (25%), haft (2%) and dorsal ridge or keel (>1%). The ratio of lateral to bit flakes (ca. 3:1) reflects the elongated nature of adzes. Long narrow ET and MT haft thinning flakes match their adzes. Two ET ridge flakes are proximal to the bit and exclude the edge.
Flakes from known adze position number 121 & 14 in tundra & forest, with lateral and bit flake frequencies (68 & 79%, and 26 & 21%), respectively, plus the addition of haft and bit flakes (3 & 2%) in tundra sites. Turning to strial area, 31 (21%) are unstriated, while 37 (25%) and 78 (53%) have restricted or widespread striae. Tundra and forest flakes are 22 & 12% unstriated, 26 & 18 narrowly striated, and 51 & 71 widely striated. Greater forest adze use and curation is seen in more widespread striae. Of 146 adzes and flakes, 64 (44%) are unpolished, 6 (4%) lightly polished, 53 (37%) heavily polished, and 23 (16%) dorsally ridge polished. Polish varies from all types in ET to two in SA and ASTt. 129 tundra & 17 forest flakes are: unpolished 46 & 24%; lightly polished 4 & 6%; heavily polished 32 & 71%. Dorsal ridge polish is 18% and is unreported in forest sites. Higher frequency of unpolished tundra adzes and heavily polished forest adzes reiterate tundra basalt source and its heavy use in forest sites. 4 of 146 adzes and flakes have grooved platforms for precise sharpening. All are ET & MT and suggest tundra adze manufacture, with later sharpening flakes ungrooved. Platform angles are alike for all cultures (81-84 deg.), except for LT which is lower (mean 76 deg.). Bit platform angles vary widely (65-90 deg.), reflecting small specimen number or different use. Haft striking platform angles are <90 deg. throughout Taltheilei (68-70 deg.) and may indicate haft attachment via a socket.
The high frequencies of solid black and gray in tundra adze flakes suggest access to specific basalt dykes, as does the odd high frequency of gray-green in the forest. Both are site specific. 106 of 110 black flakes are from Grant Lake sites KkLn-2 & 4, while all 6 gray-green flakes are from IjOg-2 on Lake Athabasca. Sections are 64% keeled & 36% round-backed or planoconvex. 7 tundra adzes are 71% keeled & 29% round-backed, while 4 forest adzes are evenly split. Thus, tundra has more keeled rectangular adzes, possibly thicker for greater pressure needed in working antler rather than wood. A more thorough preparation of tundra basalt adzes ensured curation with many sharpenings, but ultimate discard is seen in scattergraphs of archaeological floors, with cultural phase-important traits and variables below:
Striae: 0=none; 1=transverse (perpendicular to bit edge or sharpening flake striking platform); 2=diagonal (midway between 1 & 3; 3=longitudinal (parallel to bit edge or flake striking platform); 4=1 & 2; 5=1, 2 & 3; 6=2 & 3; 7= unorientable due to missing striking platform; & 8=1 & 3.
Burin Family Comparison
In the prolonged cold of 1500-600 B.C., the tundra and forest were occupied by Inuitlike Pre-Dorset bands of the Arctic Small Tool tradition (ASTt). It came from the Arctic coast on the heels of Shield Archaic Indian bands dispersing south to Saskatchewan. Both the latter and their predecessors, the Northern Plano Indians, made burins, but theirs and those of the Taltheilei Indians who followed the ASTt Inuitlike bands were very different from ASTt burins. Most Indian burins were made on lanceheads while ASTt burins were single purpose tools – more numerous and important – bifacial ones to slot resilient bone, antler and wood for insetting chert blades in harpoons, arrows and harpoons, and unifacial ones to plane tool bodies. There are 166 ASTt sites; 20 in tundra with 371 burin family tools, 247 with striae and 124 without. Of 45 forest sites only 7 have burin tools (10), 4 with striae and 6 without. Fewer forest tools relate to remote tundra chert sources. Of 121 tundra sites, 20 have 371 burin family tools, 3 of them, KjNb-3, 6 & 7, being stratified sites with most. Paradoxically, all are at a water-crossing where caribou and hunters were most transient on their southern migration. Compared to forest, tundra activities were more hectic (herd ambush, carcass retrievial, butchering, removing back sinew, wind-drying meat, skinning, scraping, smoking and tanning hides, and working antler and bone into tools with burins).
The burin family of slotters, burin planes, planes and primary and secondary spalls are defined and compared using functional analysis of their striae. The absence of shaped bone, antler and wood suggest organics were unpreserved in the acid soils. Most burins (and spall faces in new burins) have striae perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, but some unspalled blanks are striated. Slotters and planes often have striated tips, tapered bifacial haft, retouched and ground backs and mitten shape. Planes may be striated and bent in side view, the bent edge worn most. Thin slotter faces have bifacial parallel striae from slot wear, while thicker planes have unifacial striae on their flat surface from the high pressure needed to plane the sides of harpoon heads, bone points and art objects. Most slotters and planes have a retouched and ground edge opposite the spall face cutting edge. Extending from this edge into the haft was a channelled bone or antler backing for the pressure. Most burins have bifacially retouched and ground bases for hafting, while some large burins were hand-hafted. Spalls were also used as minute scrapers and gravers. Primary spalls are the first removed from a slotter or burin plane. They have triangular section, while later secondary spalls have rectangular section and striated uni- or bifacially according to their origin.
Striae: Production vs. Use Wear:
As most burin family tools have striae perpendicular to their axes, it is easy to assume intentional shaping by grinding as in Dorset burinlike tools, rather than use wear. But the Dorset ground most tools and were mediocre knappers compared to their ASTt ancestors who ground few tools and were superb knappers. Further, all striated tools are in sandy sites, while tools from rocky or muddy sites are unstriated. Contaminating sand grit likely striated tools by being caught between the burin and object worked because: (1) striated or ground non-burin tools are rare; (2) wear and grinding lines on the face opposite the striae are superficial, with tool thinning through flake removal; (3) striae cross the face when only the spall facet edge needs sharpening; (4) this edge is easier to resharpen by spalling than grinding; (5) in non-burin family tools like bifacial scrapers, edges are rounded, with deep striae across rather than along the edge. These striae are impossible and undesirable to grind, their origin likely due to worked damp skin becoming sand-contaminated in typical windy blowout sites; (6) bone and antler would polish rather than striate if clean; and (7) planes are striated over their concave face, a phenomenon difficult to reproduce with whetstones, but reproducible by planing the sand-contaminated convex sides of bone and antler tools.
Distribution of Striated Burin Family Tools:
Striated and unstriated tools are in 4 forest sites each, with KeNi-4 having both. They are in 20 tundra sites, with 9 sites having both types. 128 unstriated tools include 36 slotters (34 tundra - 3 stratified & 33 surface; 2 forest), 26 burin planes (24 tundra - 20 strat.; 2 surf.; 2 forest - both surf.), 25 planes (24 tundra - 6 strat.; 18 surf.; 1 forest - surf.), 14 primary spalls (all tundra - 6 strat.; 8 surf.) and 27 secondary spalls (26 tundra - 14 strat.; 12 surf.; 1 forest - surf.). The remaining 251 striated tools consist of 39 slotters in KjNb-6 & 7 in the tundra, and one from a forest site. There are 43 tundra and 2 forest striated burin planes. 16 stratified planes are from KjNb-6 & 7. There are 27 tundra and 2 forest surface planes. Striated unspalled planes include 18 tundra and 1 forest, all 8 stratified ones from KjNb-7. Primary striated spalls number 24, all tundra, 18 stratified ones from KjNb-6 & 7. 124 secondary striated spalls are mainly KjNb-3, 6 & 7.
Spalling and its Effects nn Burin Size, Use and Strial Angle:
For metric and strial measurements of burin family tools, two longitudinal axes are used as reference points: (1) main burin or plane axis running from haft to tip roughly parallel to and midway between the haft edges; and (2) axis outside the tip in heavily spalled burins which have become tapered. There, an imaginary line parallel to the longitudinal axis and behind the spallface is used for orientation. In parrot-beaked burins, the haft midpoint axis may be well within the tip but way off center, with angles >90 deg. as they "hang over" their spallscars and body. Dihedral burins maintain their 90 deg. strial angle as spall removal is usually even on both sides. Since spalls with 90 deg. striae come from parrot-beaked, dihedral and angle burins, it might be possible to determine where on the orginal burin the spall originated if we have enough of its tip to recreate it. This is the tip angle and measures the taper at the spall tip at its striking platform.
Burin strial angle is that angle between the longitudinal axis and its striae. Strial angles in burins may change by: (1) their use as chisels and gravers; (2) increased spalling because spalls are not parallel-sided, but thin from burin tip to hinge fracture. Unlike burin axes (1) or (2), the spall longitudinal axis runs midway along its length irrespective of how many spalls are removed. Change in spall strial angle may be seen as follows: a burin resembles a mitten with fingers and thumb together as imaginary spalls, the thumb being the primary spall. Striae are perpendicular lines drawn from thumb tip across the middle finger joints, so spall strial angles perpendicular to the hand will also be perpendicular to each spall. But spalls unlike fingers taper, so if fingers are spread, simulating spall removals, their "strial angle" will increase. New burins and early spalls often have 90 deg. angles, but more spalling (sharpening) may increase angles to 130 deg. as the burin is tilted so that the spall face remains perpendicular to the object worked. If we have spalls with angles filling the 90-130 deg. sequence, it is possible to re-assemble burins. If the burin is tilted back so the spallface retains the same angle of attack to the medium worked, angles in sequential spalls may be identical. To compare spalls and burins, a common measurement is needed – the angle between striae and spall facet. As spalls often curve, their longitudinal axes must often be approximated. To obtain strial angle, proximal or tip and distal or hinge ends must be known, as must the ventral face with its bulb of percussion and the distal face with its worn facet edges.
Non-Strial Analysis of Burin Family Tools:
Other traits than striae elicit burin function. Burin family tools may or may not have carination, a spallface, backing, ground haft or base, spallscars on sides or faces or both, back wear or retouch, prescar preparation and angle the spallface makes with the tip. Slotter primary and secondary spalls have similar length because slotters and burin planes have similar length, but more than half of their spalls are snapped. Primary spalls are shorter than secondary because they are the first removed. They are also thicker and narrower because they retain the original burin edge. Slotters are thinner for grooving, while burin planes are thicker for higher pressure. Planes are wider because they are unspalled. A full burin family comparison with figures is in Gordon (1996:175-196). Burin family tools are databased as follows, with important functional traits and variables:
Striae: light to heavy.
Angle1 & Angle2: strial angles of burin application that are on each side of burin or spall (*needs checking in January).
Spallangle: interpretation of original burin angle of application as determined from spall (*needs checking in January).
Tipangle: Angle where burin tip joins.
Spallface: True or False.
Backed: True or False.
Backwear: True or False.
Retouch: True or False.
Groundhaft: True or False.
Prescars: True or False.
Carinated: True or False.
Scargroups: Actual count.
Dualtool: needs a table (e.g.s - burin family tool may be scraper, knife, etc.; Side1 & Side2).
Chithos are sandstone discs for softening skins by abrading them over their rough edge. Most are roundish but some are rectangular, square, lanceolate, tear or bell-shaped and pentagonal. These simple tools-of-the-moment are in a dozen sites, mainly near treeline where caribou skins are prime in late autumn. By number and culture, and from earliest to latest, a total of 312 chithos include 26 NP, 8 SA, 11 ASTt and 67 ET (1 Earliest), 113 MT & 80 LT and 7 Chipewyan. Accounting for breakage, which was common, there are 227 full length chithos (42 tundra; 185 forest); 224 full width chithos (52 tundra; 172 forest) and 310 full thickness chithos (80 tundra; 230 forest). Mean chitho length is similar for all cultures except SA and Chipewyan which are larger, while NP chithos are much shorter. Very pronounced differences are in mean weight, with NP chithos less than half that of other cultures. ET, MT & LT weights are similar, while Chipewyan chithos (which evolved from LT) are noticeably heavier. Mean SA chitho weight is five times that of NP, while ASTt is the smallest of all except NP.
Sandstone chithos number 279 (89%), with quartzite 28 (9%), schist 2 (<1%), and 1 of gneiss, granite and silicious shale (<1%). 257 have bifacially retouched edges (82%), 67 LT (21%) & 103 MT (33%), and higher than average unifacially retouched edges in SA (55 at 17%). Bifacial edge retouch is higher in MT tundra & forest chithos. 183 chithos (58%) are complete or slightly chipped, 22 (7%) are edge fragments, 2 (<1%) are central fragments, 29 (9%) are halved, 16 (5%) are quartered and 60 (19%) are spalled. Fewer forest than tundra chithos are complete, perhaps due to greater use because raw material was under snowcover or on the distant tundra. Similarly, edge fragments are more numerous in forest. Halved, quartered, spalled and almost complete chithos are similar in both ranges.
18 (5%) of chithos are unidentifiable to plan, 121 (38%) are ovoid, 110 (35%) round, 41 (13%) rectangular or square, 8 (2.5%) tearshape, 3 (1%) lanceolate, 4 (1%) bellshaped, 3 (3%) triangular & 4 (>1%) pentagonal. 51 (16%) & 167 (53%) of tundra and forest chithos are even and flat, the rest uneven or having wavy side profiles. Less than half of NP and MT and all of SA chithos are uneven or wavy. Edgeworn chithos number 252, unworn 59. Worn chithos number 51 in tundra and 201 in forest. For comparison, a chitho attribute key follows (with important traits and variables):
Material: 1=sandstone; 2=quartzite; 3=schist; 4=gneiss; 5=granite; 6=silicious shale.
Faciality: 0=unknown/undeterminable; 1=bifacial; & 2=unifacial.
Fullness: 0=unknown/undeterminable; 1=complete; 2=edge fragment; 3=central fragment; 4=halved; 5=quartered; 6=spalled; ca. full.
Plan: 0=unknown/undeterminable; 1=ovoid; 2=round; 3=rectangular or square; 4=tearshape; 5=triangular; 6=lanceolate; 7=bellshaped; & 8=pentagonal.
Section: 0=unknown/undeterminable; 1=even & flat; 2=uneven/wavy.
Edgewear: 0=unknown/undeterminable; 1=worn; 2=unworn.
Cortex: 0=unknown/undeterminable; 1=yes; 2=no.
Core Family Comparison
A core is a reservoir of workable stone used for producing tools via flake or blade removal. The only true Beverly blade cores are ASTt, but rare Taltheilei quartzite ones are bladelike. Cores may be round, cubic, flat, keeled, pyramidal, conical, cylindrical or amorphous. They may have one or both ends or a side percussed from a single or a rotated striking platform, resulting in few flake scars or many surrounding blade scars like a fluted Greek column. Cores were used by Déné Indians for preparing flake tool blanks until metal knives and scrapers replaced stone tools in the 18th and 19th Centuries. The Déné ancestors of the Taltheilei tradition, and their Shield Archaic and Northern Plano predecessors used a variety of cores, but generally they are quite simple due to their common function and the ubiquitous quartzite river cobbles. ASTt chert microcores are more complex.
Of 170 cores, 146 stratified and 24 culturally-assigned cores occur, the latter based on association, attributes or definitive material. Included in 144 tundra and 26 forest cores are 20 chert ASTt cores (many blade-scarred), plus an SA and NP core. Dozens of cores remain culturally-unassigned in surface collections. By number and culture, from earliest to latest, cores include one NP, 21 SA (13 tundra & 8 forest, 29 ASTt (26 tundra & 3 forest); 21 ET (11 tundra & 10 forest, 59 MT (58 tundra & 1 forest) & 37 LT (33 tundra & 4 forest). ASTt, ET & LT forest cores are shorter, a situation relating to distant tundra quarries. All forest cores are narrower except slightly heavier SA, while ET cores are lighter. Rangewide sections are 25% round, 40% rectangular-square or rhomboid, 5-6% each of triangular, planoconvex and biconvex and 16% unknown. Comparisons are 24 & 35% for tundra & forest round, 40 & 42% for squarish, 6 & 4% for triangular, 6 & 12% for planoconvex, and 5 & 8% for biconvex. Range difference is due to high forest ET round & planoconvex frequencies, and a small forest sample where single cores amount to 4% of the sample of 26.
From earliest to latest, the single NP core is round, while tundra SA cores are round then squarish, while forest ones are squarish then round. Half of tundra ASTt cores are squarish with some planoconvex, round or triangular, while forest ASTt ones are squarish and some biconvex. Minor frequencies of SA tundra planoconvex sections change to triangular and biconvex in forest sites. Tundra ET sections are mainly squarish with some triangular and planoconvex, while forest ET is squarish and planoconvex. Tundra MT cores are half squarish and a fourth round, while forest MT is squarish (1 core). Most tundra and forest LT cores are round or rectangular. Rangewide squarish sections outnumber round. Rangewide comparisons are 56 & 77% blocky for tundra & forest, 26 & 12% conical, 4 each of spherical and 12 & 8% boat-shaped. More blocky forest cores are balanced by fewer forest conical & boat-shaped ones. As depleted quartzite cores are mainly nodular or blocky, forest cores appear to have been more heavily utilized. Lenticular cores appear only in tundra sites in SA & ASTt.
From earliest to latest, the NP core is round; SA cores an even mixture of rectangular-square, ovoid and round, ASTt mainly squarish, ET chiefly round but equally squarish and ovoid, MT mostly squarish, LT round and squarish. No transition appears in NP and ASTt, while Taltheilei varies between squarish and round. Single platforms predominate in ASTt and MT, rotated platforms in MT followed by LT, and bipolar platforms in LT followed by MT & SA. In sum, most platforms are rotated, an indication of more extensive flake or blade removal for producing further tools. Taltheilei cores are consistently rotated, indicating continuity across this tradition. More forest than tundra cores (31 vs. 26%) are depleted, perhaps due to inaccessible raw material. 12% of tundra and forest cores have other functions vs. 4% of pushplanes and knives, 2% of wedges and <1% of hammerstones and cleavers,. Cores are 82% quartzite, 11% chert, 4% quartz and <1% basalt. 21% of all cores are banded stone, mainly MT & LT, and half as much in ASTt & ET. This repeats in tundra, but predominates in forest ET, followed by SA and ASTt. Culturally important core traits and variables are noted below.
Plan: 1=round like river cobble; 2=rectangular/square; 3=ovoid; 4=triangular.
Section: 1=round; 2=rectangular/square/rhomboid; 3=triangular; 4=planoconvex; 5=biconvex.
Profile: 1=blocky; 2=conical; 3=spherical; 4=boatshaped; 5=lenticular.
Flakescars: 1=blade/bladelike; 2=flakelike.
Striking Platform: 0=unknown; 1=single; 2=rotated; 3=bipolar.
Cortex: 1=present; 2=absent.
Battered: 1=unipolar; 2=bipolar.
Edgewear: 0=unknown; 1=present; 2=absent.
Depleted: 1=no; 2=yes.
Multipurpose (dualtool): 0=no/unknown; 1=pushplane; 2=wedge; 3=knife; 4=hammerstone; 5=cleaver.
Serrated: 0=no; 1=yes.
Hinge-fractured: 0=no/unknown; 1=yes.
Material: 1=quartzite; 2=chert; 3=quartz; 4=basalt; 5=granite; 6=sandstone.
A hammerstone is often a long symmetric pock-marked tool of quartzite or shock-resistant granite and basalt. Used most frequently for stone-knapping, splitting cores and thinning large core flakes, hammerstones could also have been used for any tasks where hammering was needed, like tent pegs.They usually have round ends, one often larger than the other, and one or both pock-marked from hammering. Some are pockmarked equatorially midway. Hammerstones were used by the Chipewyan until they stopped stone-knapping, with mundane tasks like tent pegging done by steel axes in the 18th Century. Their Taltheilei ancestors and their predecessors, the ASTt, Shield Archaic and Northern Plano, used a variety of hammerstones, but most are quite similar due to their simple function and ready access of river cobbles. They are simple tools-of-the-moment like chi-thos, such that hundreds of discarded surface ones are culturally-unassigned. By number and culture, from earliest to latest, hammerstones include 13 NP, 4 SA, 1 ASTt and 8 ET, 6 MT and 18 LT.
Of NP hammerstones, one was unipolar, 8 bipolar, and 4 bipolar and equatorially pocked, the last apparently of rare usage as only one other hammerstone (MT) had both. Half are ovoid in plan and section, with half as many again of round plan and section. There was a obvious tendency in NP for roundness, like chi-thos. Of striking non-conformity with other traditions, NP hammerstones are not only equatorially pocked but huge. Of 4 SA pocked hammerstones, 2 each were uni- & bipolarly pocked. Half have square/rectangular sections, with one each of triangular and planoconvex sections. Half have rectangular plans, with one each of tearshaped and ovoid plans. A single ASTt hammerstone was a unipolarly pocked pebble of triangular plan and square/rectangular section. Of 32 Taltheilei ones, 8 ET are uni- (6) & bipolarly (2) pocked, and none have equatorial pocking. ET ones have rectangular (4), tear-shaped (2) and ovoid (1) plans, and many section types. Four of 6 MT hammerstones have unipolar pocking, a fifth with bipolar and equatorial pocking, and the last with pocking on one face and end. Five have rectangular plans and many sections, reflecting the cultural transition from ET. 18 LT hammerstones are halved into uni- & bipolar pocking. Half have rectangular plans and sections, the remainder with round, ovoid and tear-shaped plans of various sections.
Generally, hammerstones change from huge round unipolarly pocked cobbles in NP to small mixed uni- & bipolarly pocked partly rectangular pebbles in SA. Diversity continues in Taltheilei with a multitude of sections, with most having rectangular plans that unify the tradition. Key traits and variables for cultural comparison are as follows:
Pocking: 0=no polar pocking; 1=unipolar; 2=bipolar; 3=equatorial; 4=2 & 3; 5=halved & pocked; 6=1 & 3; 7=side only, but not equatorial.
Section: 0=unknown; 1=round; 2=ovoid; 3=square/rectangular; 4=biconvex (thinner than ovoid); 5=triangular; 6=planoconvex.
Plan: 0=unknown; 1=round; 2=square/rectangular; 3=tearshape; 4=triangular; 5=ovoid/semi-ovoid.
Pockangle: 0=unknown; 1=end; 2=angle; 3=end & angle; 4=end & equatorial.
Stone knives were used by Déné Chipewyan until replaced by steel knives in the 18th Century. Their Taltheilei ancestors and their predecessors, the ASTt, Shield Archaic and Northern Plano traditions, used a variety of knives, some culturally distinct, but most were similar. Except for elegant finely retouched and colourful ceremonial ones, knives were tools-of-the-moment; quickly made and sharpened as needed, and easily discarded, as seen in abundant fragments. Mainly butchering tools for caribou, they were used on other game, fish, birds, plus sundry other tasks. Hundreds of surface knives were culturally assigned using 1272 stratified knives in eight sites: KjNb-5, 6 & 7 and KkLn-2 & 4 in the tundra, and KdLw-1 and KeNi-4 & 5 in the forest. 91% of all are quartzite, 5.5% chert, 0.3% quartz, 2.5% silicious shale, 0.2% sandstone, 0.2% basalt and 0.4% mudstone. Knives have a tip and midsection with retouched cutting edge that may be worn with use, and a supporting base that may be ground to fit a haft. They are uni- or bifacially retouched or rarely, fully ground. Uni- and bifacial ones are retouched on one or both faces, while three knives (ET) are ground. Knives vary from elongated to round. Some retain their striking platforms, mainly at their base, but most are retouched away for haft socket insertion. Use wear from slotting, scraping and cutting may occur on one or both edges. One cannot assume round ends are bases, as some knives have sharp round tips. Alternatively, some bases are pointed; e.g., tanged for haft insertion.
By number and culture, from earliest to latest, knives include 26 NP (7 unif. & 19 bif.), 130 SA (22 unif. & 108 bif.), 127 ASTt (21 unif. & 106 bif.) and 216 ET (36 unif., 177 bif. & 3 ground), 608 MT (107 unif. & 501 bif.) & 190 LT (36 unif. & 154 bif.) and one Chipewyan (KeNi-4C:-1-4). 14 stratified shouldered knives comprise two each of ASTt, ET and LT, plus 8 MT, with no Chipewyan, NP or SA ones. Both ASTt knives are bifacial chert with uni-shouldered ground tang and worn tip. A unifacial ET knife has an unworn round tip and long ground tapered alternately retouched tang. 7 of the 8 MT specimens are bifacial quartzite with uni-shouldered tapered base or bi-shouldered and tanged. Both LT knives are bifacial with big uni-shoulders, and serrated with tapered bases. Cultural distinctions are limited: ASTt or MT uni-shouldered or alternately retouched tang, and LT crude uni-shouldered tapered midsections, big ET serrated semi-lunar plan and MT cortex backed unifaces. Moderate basal grinding, alike in forest and tundra ratios, is in >85% in all cultures except ASTt (74%), while heavy grinding is rare. Very worn bits are higher on tundra. SA knives are often thick and long, with some side-notched like its points. ASTt knife plans vary considerably, mainly roundish, rectangular and semilunar, with some resembling sideblades. Most knives of all cultures are broken after striking rock or bone, and quickly discarded. Fragments were first classed as uni- or bifacial, then to knife portion on shape. Ground vs. worn; bifacial vs. unifacial, and sharp vs. worn/ground edges were tabled at breaks; i.e., if retouch continues unchanged from tip to break, and if a reasonable amount of base remains, the base is likely retouched. If retouch ends before the break, the base was assumed to be unretouched. Some traits (e.g., MT stemmed bases) permitted culturally assignment to some surface knives.
Multi-purpose tundra knives from earliest to latest are KkLn-4 wedges 183-4a (SA) & 780-2a (MT) and graver KkLn-2:83 (NP); awls KjNb-7:30-47 (MT) & KjNb-6:36-2 (LT); spokeshave KjNb-6:20-3 (MT); scrapers (KkLn-2:159-1 & 280-1 - both NP; KjNb-3:3-306 & KjNb-7:22-13 - both ASTt; KjNb-7:10-3, 12-17 & 14-39 & KkLn-4:682-2 (all MT). Forest scraper-knives are IiOd-2:12 (ASTt), KeNi-4A:3-76 (MT), IjOg-2:50 (LT) & IiOd-2-3 (LT). 2 tundra MT pushplane-knives are KjNb-7:10-3 & 7:39-27. Knife-artpieces are KlNb-1:1 (ASTt) & KkLn-4:780-2a (MT). MT choppers are KjNb-6:40-32, KjNb-7:6-7 & KkLn-4:722-2a; while LT choppers are KjNb-7:1-9 & 16-3. Odd knives with are KbNb-8:28 (ASTt with 2 microblade scars), 2 waxy KjNb-7 knives: 38-21b (MT) & 38-11 (LT). Heat-treated knives are KjNb-6:27-4 & 5-4 (SA), and 45-25 (MT). 3 parrot-beaked knives are KjNb-3:3-30, 3-114a & 3-189 (ASTt). Tundra SA knives with ribbon or parallel-flaking are KjNb-7:42-5 & 42-9; ASTt retouched sideblade KjNb-3:4-20, KjNb-6:30-2 & KjNb-7:12-81, 11-74, 18-45 and 44-3 & 8; and KkNb-3:52, KkNb-21:6, KlNa-1:39 & KlNa-2:1. Forest ASTt ribbon-flaking is on KbNa-17:24, 19:19 and 21:16 & 25, KeNj-2:8, KgLo-1:22 & KbNb-3:3, plus KbNg-4:37. A very heavily ground base is KeNi-4C:4-11, while heavily worn knives include KjNb-7:23-25 (tip) & 10-8 (MT) & KkNb-6:17 (MT). A heavily retouched knife is LT KkLn-4:926-1b, while an odd thick knife is KjNb-6:40-32 (MT). One patinated knife is KdNi-5 of European type flint. Notable hinge-fractured knives are KkLn-2:133-1 (NP) & LbLs-1:3 (ASTt). Channel-flaking is on KjNb-7:24-13 (SA), KeNi-6:15 (ASTt), KjNb-7:33-79b (ASTt) and MT KjNb-6:43-3 & KjNb-7:8-35. 22 burnt knives are KjNb-7:39-36 (SA); plus MT KjNb-5:1, 2, 3, 13, 16, 18-20, 23-26; 2-2 & 4; and MT KjNb-7:12-20 & 120, 19-49, 29, 30-126 & 139, 33-7 & 10 and 39-36. Long narrow tanged bases include KjNb-7:10-37 (ASTt), 7 MT bifaces: KbNa-20:1; KjNb-6:29-2, 44-7 & 63-4 and KjNb-7:34-15; and KkNa-2:35 & LbLs-2:13; and LT KkNa-4:40 & LbLs-3:6. Shouldered biface knives are KjNb-4:56, KkLn-4:35 & KkNb-10:61; and 17 bi-shouldered: SA KkLn-4:167-4a & 298-4a; ASTt KcNb-25:2 & KeNi-4C:4-166; ET KeNi-4C:4-6 and KjNb-7:18-36 & 19-140; and MT KbNa-16:56, 64 & 189, KjNb-6:63-4, KjNb-7:15-16, KkNa-2:18, KkNa-5:5 & 16 and KkNb-3:116 & 842. Ground side-notched knives are both ASTt - KjNb-3:3-15 & 3-29. One striated knife is KkLn-4:614-2b, a fully bifacially ground ET knife with striae parallel to the edge.
For comparison, an attribute key was contructed as follows, with culturally important traits and variables for analysis:
Faciality: 0=unknown; 1=unifacial; 2=bifacial.
Fullness: 0=unknown; 1=base only; 2=midsection; 3=tip only; 4=1 & 2; 5=2 & 3; 6=edge fragment unidentifiable to tip, midsection or base. If large and lacks tip or base parts it may be a midsection; 7=complete; 8=1, 2 & 3, but longitudinally split; 9=like 8, but chipped.
Plan: 0=unknown; 1=lanceolate; 2=ovoid; 3*=semi-lunar; 4=rectangular/square/parallelogram; 5=tearshape/triangular; 6=pentagonal; 7=left-leaning; 8*=amorphous/asymmetric like sideblades except left-leaning, semilunar & asymmetrically ovoid; 9=discoid; 10=unishouldered; 11*=bishouldered; 12=notched; 13=spadelike, including side-notched; 14=sinuous like SA; 15=bipointed like some sideblades; 16=bladelike; 17=rhomboid (*semi-lunar means straighter edge opposite a rounder edge than a sideblade).
Section: 0=unknown; 1=biconvex; 2=planoconvex; 3=parallel-sided/tabular; 4=concavoconvex; 5=triangular/keeled; 6=tortoise#; 7=sinuous*; 8=1 & channel-flaked; 9=2 & channel-flaked; 10=tabular & channel-flaked; 11=4 & channel-flaked. (#tortoise resembles convex but more domelike and finely retouched).
Edgetype of midsection or tip: 0=unknown; 1=unworn serrations, as in many preforms some few finished knives (see note on serrations in 9); 2=bifacial retouch & unworn; 3=unifacial retouch & unworn; 4=bifacial retouch & worn; 5=unifacial retouch & worn; 6=ground & worn only; 7=worn flake edge; 8=serrated & worn; 9=alternately retouched & unworn (in side view alt. ret. is more pronounced in its sinuousity than serrated, which may actually be flat. Preforms, especially big ones, may have pronounced sinuous alt. ret.); 10=alternately retouched & worn, 11=completely bifacially ground.
Base: 0=unknown; 1=unground & unretouched, as in common flakes; 2=ground & unretouched, as in fully ground bases; 3=unground & dorsally retouched; 4=unground & ventrally retouched; 5=unground & bifacially retouched; 6=unground, with edges alternately retouched (i.e., a ventral and dorsal edge unifacially retouched; 7=ground & dorsally retouched; 8=ground & ventrally retouched; 9=ground & bifacially retouched; 10=ground, with edges alternately retouched (i.e., a ventral & a dorsal edge unifacially retouched; 11=bifacially thinned & unground through hinge-fractured bladelike flake removal; 12=full cortex base.
Midsection: 0=unknown; 1=unifacial; 2=bifacial; 3=alternately retouched edges; 4=serrated.
Tip: 0=unknown; 1=unworn & pointed; 2=worn & round; 3=worn & pointed; 4=unworn & round; 5=serrated; 6=square.
Break: 0=unknown; 1=transverse break; 2=diagonal break; 3=transverse & diagonal breaks; 4=longitudinal break; 5=semi-transverse break; 6=transverse breaks; 7=longitudinal & transverse breaks; 8=diagonal breaks; 9=diagonal & longitudinal breaks; 10=slightly chipped with full measurements except weight; 11=knife made from sharpening flake; 12=halved transversely; 13=halved diagonally; 14=halved or split longitudinally; 15=halved or split in thickness. Where breaks are specific (e.g.s, transverse or diagonal), their assignments take precedence.
Striae: 0=unknown; 1=absent; 2=unifacial striae parallel to edge; 3=unifacial striae perpendicular to edge; 4=bifacial striae parallel to edge; 5=bifacial striae perpendicular to edge; 6=bifacial striae perpendicular & transverse to edge.
Cortex: 0=unknown; 1=most of dorsal face; 2=most of edge; 3=tip face; 4=midsection face; 5=basal face; 6=midsection edge; 7=basal edge; 8=striking platform area only; 9=both ends, but absent on midsection.
Baseplan: 0=unknown; 1=tapered, round & ground; 2=tapered, flat & ground; 3=tapered, round & unground; 4=tapered, flat & unground; 5=tapered; no basal edge; 6=round & ground; 7=round & unground; 8=pointed & ground; 9=pointed & unground; 10=concave & ground; 11=concave & unground; 12=square & ground; 13=square & unground (includes unretouched crude flake ends, with or without cortex that have an approximately square plan; 14=side-notched & ground; 15=side-notched & unground; 16=corner-notched & ground; 17=corner-notched & unground; 18=tanged & ground; 19=tanged & unground; 20=serrated; 21=fish-tailed; 22=cortex base.
Back: 0=unknown; 1=same as edge opposite; 2=cortex blunt back; 3=intentionally blunted back.
Striking platform: 0=unknown; 1=ground unfacetted; 2=ground with ≥1 facets; 3=unground unfacetted like cortex spalls; 4=unground with ≥1 facets; 5=raised lateral; 6=unraised lateral; 7=retouched or bashed away; 8=raised base; 9=prepared arcuate ground striking platform with ≥1 facets; 10=prepared arcuate unground striking platform with ≥1 facets.
Oddthick: 0=regular thickness or undetermined; 1=odd thick section compared to knife length & width - common in preforms & choppers.
Points are usually symmetric elongated culturally-diagnostic hunting tools of shock-resistant quartzite or chert, but some are basalt or silicious shale. Used for killing mainly caribou, they may be confused with symmetric lanceolate bifacial knives. Unless retouched away, most points have striking platforms at the haft opposite a sharp tip. Points vary in size from long lanceheads to tiny arrowheads, which were used by Déné Indians until replaced by flintlock guns in the 18th Century. As lances outperform rifles by silently killing large numbers of caribou at water-crossings, they were used well into the 20th Century. The Déné and their Taltheilei ancestors, and their Barrenland predecessors of the ASTt, Shield Archaic and Northern Plano traditions, used a variety of points, most distinct to period. They were not simple tools-of-the-moment, but retained by herd followers between forest and tundra.
Of 1061 points, 301 are stratified and 765 are culturally affiliated surface artifacts. By number and culture, from earliest to latest, points include 147 NP (138 tundra & 9 forest), 79 SA (62 tundra & 17 forest), 101 ASTt (85 tundra & 16 forest and 246 Early (ET; 75 tundra & 171 forest, 333 Middle (MT; 162 tundra & 171 forest & 142 Late (LT; 55 tundra & 87 forest) and 7 Chipewyan (3 tundra & 4 forest). Measurements of some broken points were estimated. NP points are mainly Agate Basin types lanceolates of biconvex section, parallel-sides and tapered ends (although some midsections are rounded), with ground flat and round basal edges. Many have burinated tips and sides, a diagnostic of Northern Plano. Some have also been made into gravers. None are shouldered, tanged, or notched. Most have fine collateral retouch and standard size. SA points are mainly side-notched, rocker-based, and profusely ground. Most are lanceolate of biconvex section with indented notches. A few have flat basal edges, and rarely asymmetric. The point cultural continuity from NP to SA proposed by Wright (1976) exists in general lanceolate plan, biconvex section, and fine retouch and thinning. Unfortunately, the SA points that most resemble NP points are middle rather than late SA; the early SA example short, thick and unlike NP Agate Basin points. ASTt points are mainly triangular in plan, with side-notched ones rare. As sideblades co-occur, some points may be harpoon endblades, with the possibility that caribou may have been harpooned, in addition to the more usual lancing and shooting with bow-and-arrow. Taltheilei points follow a transition from ground tang to ground shoulder to ground stem to unground corner & side-notched and asymmetrically tanged. Earliest Taltheilei points have thick narrow ground tangs and are rare, being present only on the Dubawnt River and mainly at Grant Lake. ET points are wide and prominently shouldered, with square plan hafts, and exist from the Kazan to Great Slave Lake, where they are called Hennessey. MT points are lanceolate, thinner than ET, and ground stemmed, with almost a diamond pattern in some examples. When finely made, they may be confused with NP Agate Basin points. LT points vary more than any other, their main attribute being their deviation from the rest, and their asymmetry. However, some points, especially spadelike varieties, may be finely made and symmetrical. Since hunting at shallow water-crossings results in points broken when rocks are struck, the tipless bases with attached shafts retrieved to camp for point re-attachment result in many discarded bases near hearths. Shouldered ET points are snapped at their weak point below the shoulder, resulting in tapered bases like MT bases. In sum, shouldering changes to stemming from ET to MT, and from right-angled straight bases to straight sides to rounded bases and tapering stems. Transitional single-shouldered stemmed points occur, as do odd points of the other phase in buried levels. Surface points can be phased with a small degree of uncertainty. Early point bases are angular, with almost right-angled corners merging to straight sides. MT bases are more often rounded, with gradual tapering to curving stems. Chipewyan points may be copper, brass, bone and stone and vary considerably.A key of attributes and their values for determining cultural homogeneous points was contructed as follows:
Plan: 0=unknown; 1=lanceolate; 2=rectagular/square/rhomboid; 3=triangular; 4=spadelike; 5=pentagonal.
Section: 0=unknown/absent; 1=biconvex; 2=planoconvex; 3=concavoconvex; 4=biplanar; 5=keeled.
Tip: 0=unknown/absent; 1=sharp; 2=round; 3=serrated; 4=flat; 5=probably intentionally burinated with patterned scars; 6=probably accidentally burinated with a single blow from striking a rock or bone; 7=altered or retouched tip but not burinated (e.g.s, graver,drill, endscraper or wedge).
Middle (taper is judged at midpoint, with maximum length of taper either towards the tip or base): 0=unknown/absent; 1=tapered to tip; 2=tapered to haft; 3=parallel-sided.
Basedge (basal edge): 0=unknown/absent; 1=unground flat; 2=ground flat; 3=unground round; 4=ground round; 5=unground concave; 6=ground concave; 7=unground pointed; 8=ground pointed.
Base: 0=unknown/absent; 1=unground square; 2=ground square; 3=unground taper; 4=ground taper; 5=unground flare; 6=ground flare; 7=parallel tang; 8=tapered tang; 9=unground side-notch; 10=ground side-notch; 11=unground corner-notch; 12=ground corner-notch; 13=unground round; 14=ground round; 15=fish-tailed (mostly ET). (Note: tapered bases or hafts expand less towards the midsection than flared bases).
Oddbase: 1=eared; 2*=almost notched; 3=fully ground; 4=heat-treated or burnt; 5=patinated or weathered; 6=channel-flaked; 7=single side-notched; 8=almost tanged; 9=thinned. (*SA side-notched points usually are eared or spurred, while LT usually is unspurred, but have corners).
Break: 0=absent (possible slight chipping without altering measurements); 1=transverse; 2=diagonal; 3=semi-transverse or semi-diagonal; 4=double diagonal, as in corner-removed midsections or bases; 5=1 & 2; 6=double transverse, as in midsections; 7=longitudinal & transverse, as in halved or split points; 8=intentionally burinated with patterned scars along one or both sides or faces. Accidentally burinated points keep their original breakage code.
Burinated: 0=unknown/absent; 1=one side or face; 2=both sides or faces.
Shoulder: 0=unknown/absent; 1=unground single; 2=ground single; 3=unground double; 4=ground double. (Note: side and corner-notched points are not labelled as shouldered even if they have shoulders, it being understood from their notched plan. However, shoulders are designated in tanged points).
Inferred shoulders: 0=unknown/absent; 1=yes, using point style of particular culture.
Dualtool (double function): 1=wedge; 2=knife; 3=burin; 4=graver; 5=bifacial scraper or skin flexer; 6=gouge; 7=endscraper; 8=chisel; 9=spokeshave.
Substance: 1=quartzite; 2=chert; 3=quartz; 4=silicious shale; 5=basalt; 6=brass; 7=copper; 8=steel; 9=schist; 10=taconite; 11=slate; & 12=bone.
A pushplane is a hafted symmetrical bifacial elongated flat upturned tool usually of quartzite. Supposedly used for planing organic materials of wood, bone and antler, pushplanes seldom produce striae on their quartzite edges for analyzing true function and may have been used as chisels or wedges. Larger and more serrated, ventrally polished or worn than scrapers, pushplanes resemble large scrapers. But scrapers wear or striate over the edge from the distal surface while pushplanes wear on the ventral surface because they glide along almost on their ventral surface. Pushplanes also resemble thick upturned planoconvex unifacial knives, except the latter seldom have abrupt side and end retouch like pushplanes and are often pointed and thin. Pushplanes may also resemble abruptly flaked flat cores and core tablets.
Often uneven in side profile due to haft thinning, pushplanes are usually flat ventrally, and ridged or rounded dorsally except for upturned rounded bits. A few have flat fully retouched ventral surfaces, but most are plain. Some chert ones have polished or ground bits. Pushplanes were used by Déné Indians until replaced by steel spokeshaves, chisels and planes in the 18th Century. Their Taltheilei ancestors, and predecessors of the ASTt, Shield Archaic and Northern Plano used a variety of pushplanes, but generally their similar planing purpose obviated a common shape. They were not simple tools-of-the-moment, requiring some shaping and edge grinding, but are easier to make than fully ground adzes, chisels and axes. Thus, they were probably not carried while herd-following.
33 pushplanes from stratified levels were examined in the hope of culturally assigning 54 very similar surface tools. Stratified pushplanes are all in tundra sites and number according to culture as: SA 1, ASTt 1, ET 5, MT 23 & LT 3. Surface pushplanes are also in tundra sites, tentatively assigned as: ASTt 4, ET 3 & MT 47. The only stratified ASTt pushplane KjNb-7:49-9 is broken (bit only), but is ovoid, of tortoise-shell section, unstemmed, unserrated and with gradual side & end retouch. Of 4 similar surface culturally-undesignated pushplanes, 1 is ovoid (3 are tearshape), 3 tortoise-shell (1 keeled), 1 unstemmed (3 stemmed) & all gradually side & end retouched. Although resemblances exist only in section and retouch, surface LbLt-2:5 is left-leaning like many ASTt tools, and comes from a single component ASTt site. Surface LbLs-1:4 & LbLs-3:55 have fine ASTt retouch, and are also from single component sites. Surface LdLl-2:20 resembles the stratified pushplane in section, cortex & retouch. All are alike, the surface pushplanes from a locale of predominantly ASTt sites, and all are included under ASTt for analysis.
The 5 stratified ET pushplanes include 3 ovoid (2 tearshaped), 2 tortoise & 2 keeled (1 rectangular section), 4 serrated (1 unserrated), 3 stemmed (1 unstemmed & 1 unknown) - all abruptly side & end retouched. Average length, width & thickness are 70x44x19 mm. The 3 surface culturally-undesignated pushplanes are 2 ovoid (1 tearshape), 2 tortoise (1 keeled), all serrated, 2 unstemmed (1 stemmed) - all abruptly side & end retouched. Average length, width & thickness are 69x51x29 mm. Close analogies between stratified & surface ET pushplanes in plan, section, serration, stemming, retouch & length suggest all be combined under ET for cultural definition. MT pushplanes slightly vary in serration and retouch, but ratios of abrupt end to side retouch, and gradual end to side retouch support overall likeness. SA pushplanes are largest, while ASTt & LT ones are too alike for surface pushplane identification.
Half of all pushplane plans are ovoid, 11% are lanceolate, 20% rectangular and 21% tearshaped/triangular. The oldest or SA is tearshaped. ASTt shares ovoid & tearshape as does ET. MT has all plan views (half ovoid, 9% lanceolate, 23% rectangular & 14% tearshape), LT follows MT, reducing to a third each of lanceolate, rectangular & tearshape. Over time, Taltheilei exchanges ovoid for more elongated plans. 23% of pushplane sections are keeled, 70% tortoise-backed and 3%. The SA pushplane is keeled, the ASTt types 20% keeled & 80% tortoise-backed. ET is 38% keeled, half tortoise-backed & 12% rectangular. MT has all sections (20%, 73% & 3%, respectively). LT has a third & two-thirds of keeled & tortoise-backed. ASTt & MT pushplanes are indistinguishable on tortoise-backing. Taltheilei through time diversifies and reconsolidates, losing rectangular sections.
54% of pushplanes are serrated, the remainder worn, ground or unserrated. The SA pushplane is serrated, as are 60% of ASTt, 88% of ET, half of MT and two-thirds of LT. Serration is common throughout Beverly prehistory, reaching its zenith in ET. It can be used to culturally designate ET pushplanes only in conjunction with other data. Two-thirds of pushplanes are stemmed - the SA one, plus half of ASTt and ET. Stemming or hafting increases in Taltheilei to 64% in MT and all in LT. In association with other traits, Taltheilei phasing on hafting may be possible. Equal numbers of pushplanes are end retouched abruptly or gradually. SA and ASTt are gradually retouched; ET only abruptly. Half of MT and a third of LT are gradually retouched. In conjunction with other traits, surface ASTt & ET pushplanes may be identifiable on gradual or abrupt retouch. Equal numbers of pushplanes are side retouched abruptly or gradually. SA and ASTt are gradually retouched; ET only abruptly, as in end retouching. Half of MT and a third of LT are gradually retouched. In conjunction with other traits, surface ASTt and ET pushplanes are tentatively identifiable on gradual or abrupt retouch, whether side or end.
Bits are not ventrally retouched, as sharpening occurred using edge retouch. Ventral retouch occurs in 10% of pushplane faces, 1% of hafts and 7% of midsections. The SA pushplane has full ventral retouch, while ASTt and ET have only retouched midsections, and LT is unretouched. MT has variable retouch, probably relating to its large sample. Tentative weakly supporting cultural criteria are midsection ventral retouch in ASTt or ET. As two-thirds of pushplanes have cortex, an indication of their transient production and use, it is unlikely they were carried by herd-followers. Striae are in only two pushplanes, both MT and with a frequency of only 3%, their transient use inhibiting striae formation. Bashed, thinned and big striking platforms are reported only for MT pushplanes, perhaps a function of sample size. Nonetheless, their absence in 5 ASTt, 8 ET and 3 LT pushplanes suggest altered or big platforms may be MT culturally specific in low frequencies. Thinning is specific to MT, occurring on all haft faces/sides and bipolarly on midsection sides. It is a low frequency attribute, occurring in MT hafts 4% dorsally, 3% ventrally and 11% both; plus 1% bipolarly. 8% of pushplanes are broken transversely, 5% diagonally, 3% longitudinally, and 1% each of mixed breakages. MT displays the most variety due partly to its large sample. Cultural phase-important pushplane traits and variables are as follows:
Plan: 0=unknown; 1=ovoid; 2=lanceolate; 3=rectangular;4=tearshaped/triangular.
Portion: 0=unidentified fragment; 1=complete/almost complete; 2=bit; 3=midsection; 4=haft; 5=midsection & haft; 6=midsection & bit; 7=side missing; & 8=side fragment.
Section: 0=unknown; 1=keeled/triangular; 2=tortoise shell or planoconvex; 3=rectangular.
Edge type: 0=unknown; 1=sharp/serrated; 2=worn/ground (often abruptly retouched).
Stemmed: 0=unknown; 1=thinned haft; 2=unstemmed haft.
End retouch: 0=unknown; 1=abrupt; 2=gradual.
Side retouch: 0=unknown; 1=abrupt; 2=gradual.
Ventral retouch: 0=normal/unidentified; 1=overall face; 2=haft; 3=midsection; 4=bit.
Cortex: 0=absent; 1=present.
Striae: 0=unknown/absent; 1=longitudinal; 2=transverse; 3=diagonal.
Platform: 0=normal/unidentified; 1=bashed/thinned; 3=large.
Thinning: 0=unknown/absent; 2=dorsal haft; 3=ventral haft; 4=2&3; 5=bipolar/sides.
Break: 0=none/unidentified; 1=transverse; 2=diagonal; 3=longitudinal; 4= transverse or longitudinal; 5=1, 2 & 3.
Odd traits: 0=none/unidentified; 1=worn; 2=unworn; 3=bladescarred; 4=weathered; 5=blocky; 6=bashed side; 7=channel-flaked; 8=sharp-sided; 9=asymmetric keel. These traits center in the large MT pushplane category. Their absence in other cultures may be due to sample size, but blade-scarring & channel-flaking, although minor, may indicate MT in combination with other traits.
Saw or Denticulate Comparison
Only 7 saws and denticulates occur; two stratified, both denticulates from KjNb-7; MT 23-13 & ET 21-22a. Cultural affiliation of the remaining 5 are based either on likenesses to these two or are from surface sites with only one culture represented. Denticulates KjNb-6:1936 & 1937 resemble ET 21-22a, while saw KkNb-11:142 resembles KkLn-2:48M. The last, KkLn-2:44, is a saw from this single component NP site.
Saw and denticulates are all beige quartzite except the above almost identical patinated white chert denticulates 1936 & 1937. Denticulates are thin, unifacial quite delicate artifacts with shallow unworn notches. Saws are thicker, worn and cruder. Both are unknown in LT, ASTt & SA, a function possibly of rarity and unidentified fragments. Denticulates may have been used for decoration, perhaps as pendulums from the neck. They and saws so far have not produced striae for analyzing true function and application, and both have amorphous plans. Only denticulates have been found in Déné sites, but saws may be unrecognized. Whatever, steel saws arrived in the 19th Century. Déné Barrenland predecessors of the Northern Plano tradition used both saws and denticulates. Their relatively simple plan and execution suggest they were simple tools-of-the-moment, requiring elementery shaping and notching. As their traits overlap significantly, cultural separation of surface saw or denticulates using clustered traits appears impossible.
Five types of scrapers are symmetrical end, combination, discoidal and bifacial scrapers, and asymmetrical sidescrapers. Except for discoidal scrapers and rare scrapers with scraping edges at both ends, scrapers have two parts: an abruptly retouched scraping bit at the tip and/or sides; and a retouched or unretouched supporting base and midsection, sometimes called a handle or haft. Symmetrically retouched or unretouched tanged or stemmed scrapers were inserted in antler or bone handles, while unretouched sidescrapers were often hand-hafted. Tanged bases are narrower than stemmed or tapered bases, and may or may not be parallel-sided. Combination side/end scrapers have paired scraping bits meeting at a corner or along an arc, the latter having imperceptibly merging edges. As combination scrapers are resharpened, they shorten to resemble endscrapers, distinguishable only by their wear striae. Discoidal scrapers were hand hafted and rotated with use. The final category of bifacial scrapers are confined to ululike ASTt skin flexers. Mainly chert, they dull quickly on wet gritty caribou hides, producing extensive striae over their edges. End and combination scrapers have flat or upturned ventral bits, their dorsal surface flat, moderately convex, keeled or domed tortoise-back. If a prominent juncture interrupts an otherwise tortoise-back, it is called keeled. A base may be retouched on one or both sides.
Plan and section of broken scrapers were approximated by comparing fragments with full scrapers. Estimates of nonmetric (e.g.s, tearshape plan & biconvex section) and metric (e.g.s, length & width) traits were used. Care was taken to differentiate rhomboid from square plans in endscrapers, and tearshape from triangular. Triangular scrapers have bases tapered almost to a point, while rhomboids or keystones end in a flat base at the striking platform. Square scrapers may have rounded corners. Tearshaped scrapers resemble triangular ones, except the bit is semi-circular and the base is more tanged than stemmed; even concave sided and meeting at a point. Ovoid plans occur when bases with very convex plans have an overall circular plan. Most broken scrapers have missing bases. Discoidal scrapers are circular, with complete peripheral retouch and missing striking platform. Some combination scrapers approach a circle, especially in MT, except that the striking platform interrupts the circle. Discoidal scrapers are confined to ASTt and SA. ASTt discoids may be finely bifacially retouched; SA discoids are unifacial and rougher. A single stratified ASTt discoid, KjNb-7:18-47, serves as the example for typing fine bifacial discoids in surface sites. A single stratified SA discoid, KjNb-6:45-49, serves as type tool for rougher unifacial discoids. ASTt and SA discoidal scrapers are easily separable, the SA discoid thicker and cruder, with a less regular periphery.
In sections, keeled means thick and prominently ridged. Tabular means flat and usually thin, with the possibility of 1-2 low ridges that are less than keeled. Tortoise-backed means arcuate or 2-dimensional convex retouch across the dorsal face. Spurs or projections often occur where front and sides meet, and scrapers may be single or double spurred. Single spurs may be large, making the endscraper asymmetric.
Most scrapers are either quartzite or chert, with rare basalt. All were used for scraping hide, but may have been used on organic materials of wood, bone and antler. A few scrapers are striated, allowing the analysis of application forces and angles in functional interpretation. Many have thinned hafts. Striae occur most frequently on the bit rather than ventral surface like pushplanes, indicating oblique angles of application. Some are so rounded that retouch is obliterated. Scraper application is >30 deg. to the work, often 45 deg. Some rare huge endscrapers resemble some abruptly flaked flat cores and core tablets, but are separable using telltale wear.
Stone scrapers were used by Déné Indians well into the historic period because they are less apt to pierce and ruin fur and hide than steel scrapers. Their Taltheilei ancestors and predecessors of the ASTt, Shield Archaic and Northern Plano used a variety of scrapers. But end scrapers are ubiquitous and command a common shape. They were simple tools-of-the-moment, requiring little shaping and edge grinding except for the more elegant bifacial ASTt and tanged ET scrapers which may have been carried across the range by herd-followers.
795 stratified forest and tundra scrapers were compared to test trends and estimate culturally meaningful types for assigning surface scrapers. By number and culture (including fragments), scrapers from earliest to latest include 14 NP, 40 SA, 101 ASTt, 204 ET, 398 MT & 37 LT, plus 1 Chipewyan. Bifacial scrapers are confined to ASTt tundra sites and may reflect warm season use only. Ethnographically, most caribou skins are processed in late summer and autumn, but summer was when wind-blown sand produced striae, like they did on burins and spalls, when sand grit was caught between tools and object worked. A lone Chipewyan endscraper came from a forest site, while another came from the forest (KcNf-4), a crude cortex spall.
(1) Regarding length, SA, ASTt, ET, MT & LT endscrapers are all shorter in the forest. There are no forest NP or tundra Chipewyan ones for comparison. The shorter forest endscrapers may mean they were resharpened rather than replaced, probably due to limited access to raw material under snowcover in the forest or winter range. Little can be said regarding sidescrapers because they are few; e.g.s, all NP, ASTt, Mt & LT sidesrapers are tundra. ASTt combination scraper lengths are very similar and may reflect adequate forest chert supplies or curation of tundra carryovers.
(2) Regarding width, SA, ET (big sample), MT (huge sample but small difference) & LT (small but different) endscrapers are narrower in the forest. Tundra & forest ASTt width similarity, like length, may reflect curated supplies or a rectangular plan of constant width. Sidescrapers are too few for comparison, except for MT scrapers which are much shorter in forest. Tundra and forest SA combination scrapers are too unequal for comparison, but forest ASTt combination scrapers are wider, reinforcing my earlier suggestion of local supplies. ET and MT combination scrapers are narrower in the forest.
(3) Regarding thickness, tundra & forest SA endscrapers are equally thick. ASTt, ET, MT & LT endscrapers are thinner in forest. Again, sidescrapers are to few, except MT scrapers which are thinner in the forest. SA, ET & MT combination scrapers are thinner in forest, while forest ASTt are thicker, reiterating possible local chert supplies.
(4) Regarding weight, SA endscrapers weigh less in forest, with ASTt & ET endscrapers ca. half. Forest MT endscrapers are a little more than half the weight of tundra scrapers; LT endscrapers less than half. ASTt combination scrapers weigh more in forest, while ET combination scrapers weigh less, with MT scrapers less than half the weight of their tundra equivalents. The longest endscrapers are SA, followed by NP, then LT, then ASTt & MT, with the smallest being ET. The longest sidescrapers are also SA, followed by ASTt, then MT and ET. The longest combination scrapers are again SA, followed by MT, then LT and ET, and finally ASTt. Endscraper length, width, thickness & weight do not vary significantly by culture, except possibly ET which is smallest. Of interest are ASTt endscrapers which are from a supposed microlithic tradition but are larger than ET endscrapers. Sidescrapers vary greatly, but again with ET smallest. ET miniaturization continues into combination scrapers, but ASTt are even smaller. This is interesting considering the cold-adapted ASTt were quickly followed by warmer-adapted ET Indians. Could miniaturization of tools reflect colder environments, a landscape that was warming slowly in ET times?
Plans decrease in order: triangular, rhomboidal, tearshape, ovoid, rectangular & ululike, with discoidal uncommon and only one parallelogram. From earliest to latest, NP is equally represented as rhomboid, triangular & ovoid; SA mainly ovoid, but high in rhomboid & tearshape; ASTt as very ululike, followed by tearshaped, triangular & ovoid. ET is mainly rhomboid & triangular (>50%), while MT has this reversed, indicating increasing popularity of reduced striking platforms & narrower stems, possibly for narrower haft insertion. LT is mainly triangular, followed by ovoid and rectangular. Rhomboid plans become reduced throughout Taltheilei, ending in a return to wider but non-triangular hafts, possibly for hand clenching. This is reinforced by the single square Chipewyan scraper. Plans are alike in tundra & forest, but forest scrapers have higher rhomboid and square plan frequencies (32 & 20%; tundra at 18 & 7%), but fewer ululike (1; tundra at 5%) due to the absence of bifacial forest ones. Other differences are the large number of forest ET rhomboid & MT square scrapers.
Sections decrease in order: tabular, tortoise-back & keeled, with minor biconvex and rare biconvex cortex spall-like scrapers. From earliest to latest, NP is almost entirely tearshaped; SA, mainly tearshaped with rising tortoise-backed. Taltheilei tabular sections drop from ET to MT to LT at 80, 70 & 50%, with LT having increasing keeled & tortoise-backed. The single Chipewyan scraper is also tortoise-backed. It appears that Taltheilei scrapers change from tabular rhomboid to keeled/tortoise ovoid/rectangular scrapers; i.e., thicker rounder scrapers. Tundra and forest section differences are immediately apparent. Tundra scrapers are more tabular and tortoise-backed (73 & 20%; forest at 64 & 14%) and less keeled & biconvex (6 & 0.5%; forest at 15 & 5%). All cortex spall planoconvex scrapers are tundra. The forest tabular & keeled plan frequencies of ET tabular (high) and MT (low) are responsible. Combined with plan (above), forest scrapers are mainly flat tabular rhomboids, while tundra ET are mainly tabular triangles; i.e., tundra ET scrapers have thinner bases, possibly for easier haft insertion during more transient hide preparation times accompanying migration. Tortoise-backing makes scrapers thicker, stronger and longer to make and is more plentiful in the semi-sedentery forest. Keel-backing makes scrapers thicker & stronger, but requires less time and is frequent in the tundra. Ululike bifacial scrapers were found only in the tundra and raise the frequency of biconvex sections.
Serrated scraper edges are in all prehistoric Beverly cultures at about 8% frequency, except for NP which doubles in a small sample. Serrated scraper edges are similar in both ranges. Type of scraper base is mainly ground unretouched & dorsally retouched taper, totalling 80%. Ventrally retouched stems & bifacially retouched tangs lag at 6% each, while unground unretouched tapered bases are few. Base types are similar overall, but tundra scrapers have a higher frequency of ground taper (40, compared to forest at 33%) & a lower frequency of discoidal (<1, compared to forest at 6%). So far, the data suggest that tundra scrapers are tabular with ground triangular bases. Cortex occurs in all cultures, with decreasing frequency in the order NP (28%), SA & LT (22%), ASTt & MT (9-10%), and ET only 6%. Since ET was the earliest Taltheilei culture following the cold ASTt period, ET peoples may have had more raw material or a dislike of cortex on finished tools. The frequency of scrapers with cortex is higher in the tundra and probably reflects unneeded retouching & resharpening due to more raw material.
Striae occurs in 12% of scrapers, most cultures having 8-14%. Striae are very high in ASTt (34%) due to ease of formation & identification. The incidence of striae is similar in both ranges. Moderate basal grinding occurs in 90% of Beverly scrapers and is >85% in all cultures except ASTt, where it is 74%. Heavy basal grinding is present in 1% of scrapers, and is seen rarely in SA, ASTt (more common), ET & MT. Basal grinding frequency is similar in forest and tundra. 77% of scrapers have modestly worn bits, while 9% are very worn. Taltheilei ET, MT & LT all have >80% worn bits, a possible cultural marker. SA has 67%, NP 50% and ASTt lowest at 47%. Very worn bit frequencies are higher in the tundra (11 compared to 5%), while worn & unworn frequencies are similar. Many endscrapers have ground multifacetted bifacial bases with edge angles like those of bifacial knives. Many may have been made from knife sharpening flakes and are called thinning flake scrapers. Scrapers on biface thinning flakes or which have knife-edged striking platforms have similar frequencies in both ranges.
Spurs are lateral projections from endscraper bits. They may be sharp in Taltheilei and dull in ASTt. 13% of Beverly scrapers are single spurred, while 6% are double spurred. Single spurs are common in ET at 20%, less so in MT at 13% and minor in LT at 6%. Spurring decreases throughout Taltheilei and may relate to the trend towards thicker rounder scrapers. However, double spurs in Taltheilei are low at 2-6%. Single spurring is uncommon in ASTt at 8%, but double spurring is common at 34%. Spurring frequency is generally similar in tundra & forest, except for double spurring which is common in tundra bifacial scrapers.
84% of Beverly scrapers are quartzite, 13% are chert, 1% are quartz, and <1% for the remainder. Tundra material frequencies are similar generally, while no forest sandstone, basalt or copper scrapers are reported. Tundra & forest frequencies of quartzite are 84 & 83%, while chert are 13 & 12%, showing little difference in choice of scraper material in the tundra and forest. Cultural phase-pertinent traits and variables are as follows:
Section: 0=unknown; 1=tabular; 2=keeled; 3=tortoise-back; 4=biconvex; 5=planoconvex. Many tabular sections could be called planoconvex, but that is used here to show pronounced unretouched round dorsal & flat ventral surfaces, as in cortex spall scrapers.
Base: 0=unknown/missing; 1=natural unground tapered base of common flake; 2=1 but ground; 3=dorsally retouched base; 4=ventrally retouched base; 5=bifacially retouched tang (common in ASTt ululike scrapers); 6=discoidal; 7=double-bitted with no base; 8=alternately retouched basal edge; 8=where unretouched base is broken & grinding undetermined. In broken specimens where bit retouch ends in unretouched midsections, bases are also called unretouched. If bits are unworn or worn, bases are assumed to be unground (1) or ground (2).Striae: 0=unknown/absent; 1=present and over the edge. Cortex: 0=absent; 1=present (dorsal face). Grndbase (ground base): 0=absent/unknown; 1=ground; 2=very ground; 3=unground. Wornbit (worn bit): 0=absent/unknown; 1=worn; 2=very worn 3=unworn. Thinflake (from biface thinning): 0=unknown/absent; 1=present. Spur: 0=absent; 1=single spur; 2=double spur.
Wedge ComparisonBeverly wedges are usually symmetric elongated bipolarly-pocked tools of shock-resistant quartzite. Often used for splitting organic materials of wood, bone and antler, wedges may be confused with bipolarly struck flakes. Some wedges have double bipolar striking platforms, one on each side of a square. Most, however, have two platforms unless one has been retouched or shattered away. Wedges may have pointed ends, sometimes of differing size. They were used by Déné Indians until replaced by steel axes in the 18th Century. The Déné ancestors of the Taltheilei tradition, and their Barrenland predecessors of the ASTt, Shield Archaic and Northern Plano traditions, used a variety of wedges, but generally their similar splitting purpose obviated a common shape. Like chi-thos and hammerstones, they were simple tools-of-the-moment. There are 45 stratified & 41 culturally affiliated wedges, the latter with affiliation based on other researcher's assignment; e.g., Wright's NP & LT wedges from Grant & Athabasca Lakes. Other wedges are called ASTt on diagnostic ribbon-flaking, fine discoidal retouch & associated tools. One surface wedge is labelled ET on its material - phase-specific Aberdeen Lake red taconite. Affiliation is also based on wedge construction on previous phase-specific tools like ET shouldered points. Nonetheless, dozens of surface wedges remain culturally-unassigned. By number and culture, from earliest to latest, stratified wedges include 3 NP, 3 SA, 12 ASTt and 17 ET, 9 MT & 12 LT. Culturally affiliated material includes 16 NP, 11 ASTt and 4 ET, 1 MT and 18 LT. Stratified wedges include 10 rectangular, 13 square, 3 round, 6 rhomboid, 6 parallelogram, 3 tearshaped-triangular & 3 biconvex or ovoid. Affiliated wedges include 10 rectangular, 7 square, 2 round, 9 rhomboid, 5 parallelogram, 6 tearshaped or triangular & 2 biconvex/ovoid. Gross metric and non-metric similarities suggest combining all 86 wedges. Percentagewise, plans are 23% each of rectangular & square, 6% round, 17% rhomboid, 13% parallelogram, 10% tearshaped or triangular, & 6% biconvex/ovoid. That 71 (83%) four-sided wedges occur in all cultures is unsurprising considering four-sidedness doubles wedge function. Most were rotated as seen in their double bipolar flaking. Round wedges occur in ASTt, with one each in ET & MT. NP has all plans except round, SA only 3 plans, ET all save biconvex, MT all except biconvex & tearshaped, and LT all except round. Tundra and forest wedges are 20 & 14% rhomboid and 8 & 19% parallelogram plans, respectively. The elevated tundra rhomboid plan is due to many at the NP KkLn-2 site, while the many forest parallelogram plans in 3 of 4 cultures has an unknown functional connotation. Sections are 7% rectagular/biplanar, 41% biconvex, 27% planoconvex, 7% triangular, 2% concavoconvex, 13% rhomboid/pentagon and 2% parallelogram. Square plans do not occur. Concavoconvex & triangular sections are rarest, with one in LT. SA has biconvex & planoconvex. The remaining cultures have 4 or more sections, with ET having the most. With time, ET drops rectangularity by MT, while triangularity is exchanged for concavoconvexity by LT. This loss of flatter sections in favour of rounder sections may have a functional connotation. Important range differences are absent parallelogram sections in forest and concavoconvex sections in tundra. Parallel sections in tundra are NP & ASTt, while concavoconvex sections in forest are LT. I cannot explain these discrepancies. Possible differences in flaking are now examined. 39 (45%) of wedges have amorphous flake scarring, 33% have columnar scars, 5% are channel-grooved & 15% are combined channel-grooved & columnar. Tundra and forest differences include 40 & 53% amorphous flakescars, 38 & 25% columnar flakescars, 6 & 3% channel-grooving and 14 & 19% combined channel-grooving & columnar flaking. Taken separately, columnar flaking & channel-grooving are higher in tundra, but are higher in forest when combined. Columnar flaking signifies bipolar flaking where flakescars proceed part or all the way from one pole to its opposite pole. Channel-grooving is an extension of the same process, but where one pronounced columnar flakescar bears a groove from pole to pole. This may be a sign of longer wedge use in the forest, perhaps related to scarcer raw material. If so, there should also be more double bipolar wedges in forest. 62% of wedges have simple bipolar percussion, 15% have double bipolar percussion involving rotation, 15% have 3 sharp unused or snapped edges with a striking platform on the fourth edge, and 8% have peripheral scars like a retouched discoidal knife but are struck through rather than transversely to the edge of the wedge. All cultures have bipolarly percussed wedges. SA does not have double bipolar percussion, while LT does not have 3 sharp edges & a striking platform or peripheral percussion. SA wedges are not peripherally percussed. Tundra and forest percussion frequencies are 58 & 67% bipolar, 12 & 19% double bipolar, 18 & 11% 3 sharp edges/single pole and 12 & 3% peripheral or rotational percussion. Forest wedges are used more than tundra wedges, except where they are completely rotated. ASTt wedges in both ranges are heaviest in bipolar percussion, ET has double-bipolar & sharp edges/striking platform in forest only, MT is fully represented in tundra but only bipolar in forest, and LT is similar in both ranges. 71% of wedges are quartzite, 17% are quartz, 10% chert and one is taconite, a culturally diagnostic mineral for ET. From earliest to latest, NP & SA wedges are mainly or wholly quartzite, ASTt adds quartz & chert, ET adds taconite but drops quartz, MT mainly quartzite and LT mainly clear quartz. This oddly high frequency of quartz may have rangewide implications. Taconite occurs only in the forest, which is surprising since the source lies deep in the northeast part of the tundra at Aberdeen Lake near the caribou calving ground. It must have been carried several hundred km southwest to KeNi-4 on the treeline at Whitefish Lake. Tundra and forest material frequencies are 82 & 56% quartzite, 8 & 31% quartz, 10 & 3% chert. Increased forest quartz use over quartzite is due to availability. Indeed, most quartz wedges are from sites dug by James Wright at Lake Athabasca. Cultural phase-important wedge traits are undelined below. Plan: 0=unknown; 1=rectangular; 2=square; 3=round; 4=rhomboid; 5=parallelogram; 6=tearshape/triangular; 7=biconvex/ovoid. Section: 0=unknown; 1= rectangular/biplanar; 2= square; 3= biconvex; 4=planoconvex; 5=triangular; 6=concavoconvex; 7= rhomboid/pentagonal; 8= parallelogram, 9=biconcave. Flakescar: 0=unknown; 1=amorphous; 2=columnar (usually flake); 3=channel-grooved (usually concave); 4=2 & 3. Percussion: 1=bipolar; 2=double bipolar; 3=sharp edges & striking platform; 4=peripheral percussion like discoid knife. Material: 1=quartzite; 2=quartz; 3=chert; 4=taconite.
Most whetstones are symmetric elongated bifacial tools of abrasive sandstone or polishing mudstone for sharpening the edges of stone and copper instruments or smoothing their faces. Often symmetric in side profile and called bar whetstones, some were suspended via notching. Whetstones are usually flat on both top and bottom surfaces. A few are retouched, but most are plain. Whetstones are related to edge grinders in tool preparation except the latter are grooved and made of sandstone. Whetstones may be striated and heavily worn. They occur in all phases of Beverly prehistory.Whetstone use by Déné Indians was replaced in the 19th Century by commercial ones. The Déné ancestors of the Taltheilei and their predecessors of the ASTt, Shield Archaic and Northern Plano, had whetstones of several variations, but generally bar type. They are simple tools-of-the-moment like sandstone chi-thos, but as their raw differed from other tools and was not universally available, they were probably curated and carried by herd-followers. Although only 6 tundra & 15 forest stratified and culturally affiliated Beverly whetstones occur, surface whetstones are excluded pending the establishment of culturally diagnostic traits. By number and culture, and from earliest to latest, the 21 whetstones include 3 NP, SA, and 6 ET, 1 MT, 8 LT & 1 General Taltheilei. ASTt whetstones are unreported. As half of the 4 tundra whetstones are NP, and no forest NP whetstones are reported, rangewide comparison is not given. Mean whetstone lengths are quite conservative from earliest times to LT. LT length is based on 6 whetstones, suggesting some representation. General Taltheilei at 98 mm resembles LT and supports the possibility of lengthier whetstones as Taltheilei progresses. Might this have to do with increased or differing whetstone function? Mean widths oddly differ, with NP widest, but again width increases within Taltheilei. Mean thickness follows a similar pattern, except that a huge mano-like whetstone included in LT by Wright inflates thickness and weight.* An examination of mean measurements of Beverly whetstones suggests the following ratios: NP 84x49x13 mm (w=<1/2xl); SA 72x24x9 mm (w= 3xl); ET 64x27x11 mm (w=<1/2xl, like NP); LT 108x41x22 mm (w=<3xl, like SA). Although NP & ET and SA & LT ratios are similar, NP and LT whetstones are bigger. Whetstones sorted by material are 48% sandstone, 10% each of schist & quartzite, 29% slate & 5% silicious shale. Sandstone is most common, but the single SA whetstone is schist, as is one of the 8 LT whetstones. Slate is secondmost, a major contributor to ET, NP & SA, but unimportant in LT (16%). The low frequencies of quartzite & silicious shale whetstones is probably due to their low abrasive qualities. Whetstone plans are 81% rectangular, 5% round or ovoid, and 15% triangular. All cultures have rectangular plans (the single General Taltheilei is unphased). ET has all plans, followed by LT which is rectangular & triangular. Lower plan variety in Taltheilei and overall increase in size suggest an attempt at standardization, perhaps for a specific application. All cultures have whetstones of biplanar section, a method of doubling the effective flat grinding area. ET also has a triangular pointed whetstone, probably for a specific task such as grinding the concavity of a shouldered point. Three-quarters of whetstones are unsuspended and were probably stored in carrying bags. Of the remaining quarter, 3 have deeply ground asymmetric notches cut on each side of the handle for suspending via sinew, conceivably from the neck or shirt. Two SA whetstones have notches inferred from their elongated tapering but broken shape. All definitely notched whetstones are ET, a phase producing the most types of whetstones except for LT. LT whetstones are un-notched, notching being dropped over Taltheilei, perhaps with the evolution of differing whetstone tasks or mode of carrying. A quarter of whetstones have unworn edges, their primary use being their grinding surfaces. Most whetstones have worn or ground edges, such that it is possible to infer whetstones were multi-purpose tools for both edge & face grinding. That 86% of whetstones have ground faces is expected, considering their main function was flat grinding. The remainder have ground edges for narrower applications; e.g., ET as explained for edge wear. Half of whetstones are too weathered or finely polished for striae to appear under 20x magnification. Nonetheless, 40% have longitudinal striae indicating a push-pull motion in sharpening or grinding objects; i.e., an in-line motion parallel with the major tool axis. Transverse or cross-striae and oblique striae are unreported although they exist in combination with longitudinal striae. They likely indicate variable whetstone application for special grinding tasks. Half of whetstones have distinct traits: 10% used as edge abraders; 15% with wide striated grooves; 5% with multiple breaks; 10% with worn tips, and 15% blocky and heavy. Edge abraders and groovers are used for grinding & polishing of convex stone & copper surfaces varying in diameter between point and knife edges and shafts. Spear shafts were shaped with special deeply concave rough sandstone blocky abraders described elsewhere. A few whetstones are broken such that it is impossible to tell whether breakage was done to facilitate tool use, or accidental. Tips are worn on some whetstones for special narrow grinding applications. Since I feel that whetstones were carried by herd-followers due to their special material, the blocky ones were probably left behind. 21 whetstones (5 tundra & 16 forest) include 3 NP, 2 SA, and 6 ET, 1 MT, 8 LT & 1 General Taltheilei. ASTt whetstones are unreported. Length is conservative from earliest times to LT. General Taltheilei at 98 mm is similar to LT and supports the possibility of lengthier whetstones as Taltheilei progresses. Widths oddly differ, with NP widest, but again width increases within Taltheilei. Thickness follows a similar pattern. An examination of mean measurements of Beverly whetstones suggests the following ratios: NP 84x49x13 mm (w=< 1/2 l); SA 72x24x9 mm (w= 3 l); ET 64x27x11 mm (w=< 1/2 l, like NP); LT 108x41x22 mm (w= < 3 l, like SA). Although NP & ET and SA & LT ratios are similar, NP and LT whetstones are bigger. Whetstones are 48% sandstone, 10% each of schist & quartzite, 29% slate & 5% silicious shale. Sandstone is most common, but the single SA whetstone is schist, as is one of the 8 LT whetstones. Slate is second important, a major contributor to ET, NP & SA, but negligible in LT (16%). Low frequencies of quartzite & silicious shale are probably due to low abrasive qualities. Whetstone plans are 81% rectangular, 5% round or ovoid, and 15% triangular. All cultures have rectangular plans. ET has all plans, followed by LT which is rectangular & triangular. Lower plan variety in Taltheilei and overall increase in size suggest an attempt at standardization for a specific application. All cultures have biplanar whetstones, doubling effectively the grinding area. ET also has a triangular pointed whetstone, probably for a specific task such as grinding shouldered points. 3/4 of all whetstones are unsuspended and were probably stored in carrying bags. 3 have deeply ground asymmetric side notches for suspending with sinew from the neck or shirt. Two SA whetstones have notches inferred from their elongated tapering but broken shape. All definitely notched whetstones are ET, a phase producing the most types of whetstones except for LT. LT whetstones are un-notched, notching dropping over Taltheilei, perhaps with the evolution of differing whetstone tasks or mode of carrying. 1/4 of all whetstones have unworn edges, their primary function being their grinding surfaces. Most whetstones have worn or ground edges, such that it is possible to infer whetstones were multi-purpose tools for both edge & face grinding. 86% of Beverly whetstones have ground faces because their main function was grinding. The remainder have ground edges for narrower applications. Half of Beverly whetstones are too weathered or polished for striae. Almost half have longitudinal striae of a push-pull motion in sharpening or grinding objects. Transverse or cross-striae and oblique striae exist only in combination with longitudinal striae. They likely indicate variable whetstone application for special grinding tasks. Half of Beverly whetstones have individual traits, including 10% used as edge abraders; 15% with wide striated grooves; 5% with multiple breaks; 10% with worn tips, and 15% that are blocky and heavy. Edge abraders and groovers are used for grinding & polishing convex stone & copper surfaces of varying diameters. A few whetstones are broken such that it is impossible to tell whether breakage was done to facilitate tool use, or accidental. Tips are worn on some whetstones for special narrow grinding applications. Since I feel that whetstones were carried by herd-followers due to their special material, the blocky ones were probably left behind. Cultural phase-important whetsone traits are tables below. Plan: 1=rectangular (bar, square or rhomboid); 2=round or ovoid; 3=triangular. Section: 1=biplanar; 2= planoconvex; 3= biconvex; 4=concavoconvex; 5=triangular. Suspension: o=unknown; 1=asymmetric notch; 2=none; 3=hole; 4=inferred notch Edgewear: 1=absent; 2=sharp/serrated; 3=worn/ground. Faceworn: 1=absent; 2=present. Striae: 0=unknown; 1=longitudinal; 2=transverse; 3=oblique; 4=1 & 2; 5=2 & 3; 6=1 & 3, 7=1, 2 & 3. Polish: 0=unknown; 1=absent; 3=present. Oddtraits: 0=unknown; 1=also edge abrader; 2=wide striated groove; 3=multiple breaks; 4=worn tip, 5=blocky; 6=also used as chitho, 7=1 &2.