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CLCV 2305 A - TSES 2305
Ancient Science and Technology


Instructions for:

(a) Fall term minor-research project
(b) Book reviews
(c) Suggestions for winter term essays


(a) Fall term minor research project:
1. Select an article on a Greek or Roman theme that interests you in the attached list.

2. Other selections are possible but will have to be discussed with the instructor.

3. Find a minimum of two more articles (from any periodical in the library) related to the subject matter of the first article.

4. Find a minimum of two books or encyclopedia entries related to the subject matter of your first article.

5. Using the bibliography that you have constructed in steps 3 and 4 write a five to seven page paper about the article you selected.

Do the following:

(a) summarize the article and the main arguments,

You may either then
(b) critically evaluate the article
(c) expand on one point in the article,
(d) compare and contrast the article with another article or book,
(e) propose a different way of viewing the material in the article OR
(f) come up with your own way of approaching the assignment (but check with me!).

6. Your paper must be documented: use footnotes or endnotes or in-text notation. You must document all ideas, not just direct quotes. If you do not understand this, ask!

7. You must make use of the books and articles in your bibliography.

8. You must hand in a photocopy of the first article with your assignment.

9. Be sure to proofread your paper before you hand it in (spelling, page numbers etc.).

10. Please follow these instructions. If not, the paper will be returned unmarked.

List of articles for fall term project:

Journal of Roman Archaeology 3. 1990. p 5 - 27 Jackson on Roman doctors.
Bulletin of the history of medicine 47. 4. July August 1973. p 341 - 355. T. F. Brunner on marijuana in ancient Greece and Rome.

Water mills
Antiquity 1944. p. 130 - 146. E C Curwen on the problem of early water mills.
Hesperia 5. 1936. p. 70 - 90. A. W. Parsons on a Roman water mill in the Athenian agora.
Memoirs of the American Academy at Rome 1. 1915. p. 59 - 61. A. W. van Buren etc on the Aqua Traiana and the mills of the Janiculum.

Water supply and drainage
Antiquity 18. 1944. p. 1 - 13. J. G. D. Clark on water in antiquity.
Technology and Culture 15.3. 1974. p. 289 - 412. A Burns on ancient Greek water supply.
Papers of the British School at Rome n.s. 33. 1978. D.R. Blackman on the volume of water delivered by the four major aqueducts of Rome.
History of Technology 3. 1978. p. 102 - 122. F. D. Prager on Vitruvius and the elevated aqueducts.
Scientific American. June 1985. T. A. Hodge on siphons in Roman aqueducts. Also in Proceedings of the British School at Rome 38. 1983. p. 174 - 221.
Journal of Roman Studies 56. 1966. p. 122 - 127. Boon and Williams on the Dolaucothi drainage wheel.
Technology and Culture 5.4. 1964. p. 566 - 574. S. Shapiro on the origin of the suction pump.

Journal of Roman Studies 46. 1956. p. 97 - 106 Aitken on Virgil's plough.
American Journal of Archaeology 67. 1963. p. 100 - 206. D. A. White ona survey of millstones from Morgantina.
Classical Journal 11. 1916. 323-32. Harrison on the crooked plough.
Journal of Roman Studies 63. 1973. p. 99 - 110 K. D. White on goods of agricultural use in ...Diocletian's edict.

Journal of Hellenic Studies 82. 1962. p. 121 - 137, R. A. Sparkes on the Greek kitchen.

Economic History Review 2nd series 18. 1965. p. 29 - 45. Finley on technical innovation and economic progress in the ancient world.
Acta Classica 2. 1960. p. 78 - 89. K. D. White on technology and industry in the Roman empire.
Minerals Industry International. Journal of the Inst itution of Mining and Metallurgy 1008. 1992. p 39 - 42 Sheperd on Hannibal the Rockbreaker (With CW)

Civil engineering
Papers of the British School at Rome 19. 1951. p. 78 - 117. M. H. Ballance on the Roman bridges of the via Flaminia.
Papers of the British School at Rome 41. 1973. p. 18 - 44. A. Kahane on the paved road east from Gabii.
Papers of the British School at Rome 40. 1972. p. 106 ff. A. Kahane and Ward Pekins on the Via Gabina.
Papers of the British School at Rome 38. 1970. p. 122 - 133. T. P. Wiseman on Roman republican road-building.

Technology and Culture 11: 1 . 1970. p. 58 - 68. N. A. F. Smith on the Roman dams of Subiaco.
Antiquity 35. 1961. p. 14 - 20. C. Vita-Finzi on Roman dams in Tripolitania.
Technology and Culture 12. 1971. p. 50 - 65. A. Burns on the tunnel of Eupalinus. Also Isis 1971. p. 172 - 185.

Transactions of the American Philological Association 85. 1954. p. 168 - 87. L. Casson on the grain trade of the Hellenistic world.
Memoirs of the American Academy at Rome 36. 1980. p 261 - 276. Rickman on articles of trade and problems of production.
Memoirs of the American Academy at Rome 36. 1980. p. 325 - 338. Ward Perkins on the marble trade.
Memoirs of the American Academy at Rome 1980. The seaborne commerce of ancient Rome.
American Journal of Archaeology 52. 1948. p. 1 - 10. R. Carpenter on the Greek penetration of the Black Sea
American Journal of Archaeology 61, 1957. B. W Labaree on how the Greeks sailed into the Black Sea.
American Scientist 61. 1973. J. D. Muhly on the tin trade routes of the Bronze Age.

Scientific American July 1987. p. 78 - 85 Vaan Beek on arches and vaults of the Near East.
American Journal of Archaeology 82. 1978. p. 83 - 100. Boyd on the arch and the vault in Greek arcitecture.
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 39:1. 1980. W. L. McDonald etc on the small baths in Hadrian's villa
Memoirs of the American Academy at Rome 36. 12980. p. 185 - 196. R. Meggs on seaborne timber supplies to Rome.
Technology and culture 9: 3. 1968. p. 357 - 388. J. E. Packer on structure.
Mouseion, Journal of the Classical Association of Canada XLV-Series III Vol.1, 2001 No.1Hugh J Mason on building techniques on Lesbos.

Scientific American 209 1963, p. 1230 - 130. R. H. Brill on ancient glass.
J. of Glass Studies 19. 1977. p. 98 - 29. D. Grose on early blown glass.
J. of Glass Studies 26. 1984. p. 25 - 34. D. Grose on glass forming methods in Classical Antiquity (interlibrary loan).
Archaeology 12. 1959. p. 47-52. Schuler on ancient glassmaking techniques: moulding.
Archaeology 12. 1959. p 116 - 122. Schuler on ancient glasmaking techniques: the blowing process.
American Journal of Archaeology 91. 1987. p. 191 - 196. G. Stines on lenses in antiquity.

Jounal of Hellenic Studies 105 1985. p. 108 - 128. Vickers on the influence of metal work on Athenian pottery.
American Journal of Archaeology 62. 1958. p. 165-173. Farnsworth on red glaze.

Journal of Archaeological Science 5. 1978. p 1 - 16. P. T. Craddock on the composition of copper alloys.
American Journal of Archaeology 76. 1972. p. 139 - 144. J. D. C. Boulakina on lead in the Roman World.
Journal of Hellenic Studies 64. 1954. p. 1ff. D. H. F. Gray on metal-working in Homer.
Technology and Culture 5:2. 1964. p. 149 - 175. C. S. Smith on the discovery of carbonic steel.
Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 190. 1958. p. 339 - 348. E. J. Wynne etc on an experimental investigation into primitive iron-smelting.
Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 1971. p. 342 - 363. Austin and Wraith on the mechanism of the bloomery process in shaft furnaces.
American Journal of Archaeology 1985. p. 275 ff. J. D. Muhly J on sources of tin and the beginning of bronze metallurgy.

Journal of Roman Studies 79. 1989. p. 84 - 102. Edmondson on mining in the later Roman empire.
Antiquity 1942. p. 122 f. Boon on drainage wheels.
Greece and Rome 2nd series 8. 1961. p. 138ff. R. J. Hopper on mines and miners of ancient Athens.
Journal of Roman Studies 187. 1928. p. 129 - 143. TR. A. Rickard on mining of the Romans in Spain.
Proceedings of the British Academy 1972. J. B. Wards Perkins on quarrying in Antiquity.
Antiquity 49. 1975. p. 19 - 24. J. Charles on where is the tin?
Journal of Hellenic Studies 70. 1980. p. 46 f. G. B. D. Jones on the Roman mines at Rio Tinto.

Transport : harbours and sailing
Scientific American 258. March 1988. p. 84 -91. A. M. McCann on the Roman Port of Cosa.
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 17. 1988 p. 257 - 267. G. E. Rickman on the archaeology of Roman Ports. (Internet access via library)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 6. 3. 1977. p 181 - 185. P. D. Emanuele on ancient square rigging.(Internet access via library)
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 7. 2 . 1978. p. 105 - 118. P. Pensabene on a cargo of marble shipwrecked at Porto Scito near Crotone.(Internet access via library)
Journal of Roman Studies 55. 1961. p. 31 - 39. L Casson on harbour and river boats of ancient Rome.
Transactions of the American Philological Association 892. 1951. p. 136 - 148. L. Casson on speed under sail of ancient ships.
Classical Quarterly 27. 1977. p. 331 - 332, R. P. Duncan -Jones on giant cargo-ships in antiquity.
Mnemosyne 17. 1964. p. 1 - 40. H. T. Wallinga on the units of capacity for ancient ships.
Archaeology 14. 1951. p. 31 - 35. F. Gargallo on anchors of antiquity.
Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 57. 1967. p. 163 f. G. F. Bass on Cape Gelidonia: a Bronze Age shipwreck.

Transport: general
Economic History Review 2nd series 13:1. August 1960. p. 1 ff. A. M. Burford on heavy transport in classical antiquity.
Scientific American 223: 6. December 1970. p 102 - 109. Th. H. Savory on the mule.

Journal of Hellenic Studies 94. 1974. p. 1 - 19. J. J. Coulton on lifting in early Greek architecture.
History of Technology 2. p. 658 - 662. A. G. Drachmannn on a note on ancient cranes.
Hesperia 36: 4. 1967. p 389 - 401. J. W. Shaw on a double-sheaved pulley- block from Kenchreae.

Minor crafts
Scientific American 208. 1963. p. 133 - 141. Woodbury on the origins of the lathe.

Technology and Culture 28. 1987. p. 67 - 79. D. L. Simms on Arkimedes and the invention of artillery and gunpowder. (Internet access).
Economic History Review 2nd series 13. 1960. p. 183 - 92. A. H. M. Jones on the cloth industry under the Roman empire.

Classical Quarterly 41. 1947. p. 18 - 24. J. A. Davison on the first Greek triremes.
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 1984. p. 215 f. J. S. Morrison on some problems in trireme construction.

Technology and Culture 5. 1964. p. 9 - 23. D. J. de Solla Price on automata and the origins of mechanism.
Scientific American June 1956. p 60 - 67. D. J. de Solla Price on an ancient Greek computer.
Greece and Rome 21:1. April 1974. p. 33 - 36. H. A. Harris on lubrication in Antiquity.
Journal of Hellenic Studies 1936. p. 72 - 77. A. G. Drachmann on Heron's screwcutter.

American Journal of Archaeology 72. 1968. p. 345 - 355. J. V. Noble and D. J. de Solla Price on the water clock in the Tower of the Winds.
Classical Quarterly 1. 1979. p. 203 - 212. Ph. Pattenden on sundials.
History and Technology 8. 1990. p. 25 - 50. A. W. Sleeswyk and B. Hulden on the three waterclocks described by Vitruvius.

(b) The Book Report: A Critical Assessment of a Book

A book report should present the content and the structure of a book as objectively as possible. It should provide a summary of content and an analysis of structure of the book but could be extended to include some critical (not necessarily negative) comments or your own assessment or opinion about the book. (A book review is a more ambitious undertaking where critical comments form the bulk)
Your assignment is an extended book report.

Choose a book relevant to the course, read it, and prepare an assessment in the following format. Do not use one of the textbooks!
The book can be one from the list given in the handout, or one of your own choice approved by the instructor.
Sections 1 - 3 are necessary for a passing grade, the other sections for a higher grade.

(1) "Tombstone"

Author(s) Example: Johnston, Henry
Title; sub-title (if any). Italics or underlined My Life in Science
Publisher, Date of Publication Oxford: Oxford University Press 1923
How you obtained the book. (Library, purchase etc)

This information together with your name and number should go on the top of the first page. No cover, please.

(2) Outline Structure of the Book

Outline of the book's sections and/or chapters in point form. With each section and/or chapter included in your point form list the author's main ideas associated with the section or chapter (max of 3 per chapter). This part should be no longer than 1 page. As you have given the particulars of the book above, you can refer to it simply by quoting page numbers of the book in the text.

(3) Point of the Book

Describe in complete sentences what you think was the author's reason for writing the book. What was the author's main opinion or point? What was the basis for the author's opinion/point? Is there a thesis? This part should be a maximum of 1 page.

(4) Connection with the course

How does the book relate to the course (to ancient science of technology)? Who is the material meant for? Something like "The author talks about technology and the course talks about technology." will get a poor mark. You will need some discussion/analysis. This part should be a maximum of 2 pages.

(5) Organization/readability/editing/references

Any other material you refer to or quote (such as earlier reviews or articles on the same subject that you have found) should be given a reference in the body of the report. Quoted material passed off as your own is plagiarism and your review will receive a zero.
The reports are due October 5, 2004 and January 25, 2005. There is a penalty for lateness.

No reviews will be accepted after the end of class on January 13th. You are responsible for getting the review to me. Reviews left with secretaries, under doors, with other students etc. will be dated when I find or receive them.

(c) Suggestions for Winter term essays WT 2005

(As mentioned in the introduction, you may make a model of some ancient contraption instead of writing this paper. But even such a model involves writing: I want a description of the model and of he problems of putting it together, bibliographical references - who has written about it? - illustrations etc.)

1. Ancient calendars: Egyptian and Greek
2. Major features of Greek astronomy
3. Sources of marble in the Mediterranean
4. Gold and silver in Athenian economy
5. Male and female dress in classical Athens
6. Greek furniture, was it functional?
7. Eastern sources for Greek Science
8. Trade and shipping in the Ancient Mediterranean
9. Shipping as described in the Book of Acts in the New Testament
10. Grain and grain transport to Athens
11. Heavy transport in Archaic Greece
12. Greek musical instruments
13. Fabrication and use of oil and perfumes
14. Frontinus and the water supply of Rome
15. What was the importance of the work of Archimedes?
16. The development of the Greek alphabet
17. Credit and banking in Athens
18. Roman roads and road transport
19. Why did so many of the ancient devises remain toys ?
20. Roman arithmetic: was long division possible?
21. The importance of the lateen sail ( or any other ancient type of sail)
22. How fast was it possible to row a trireme?
23. Ancient paints and dyes: their origin and use
24. Various ancient ways of extracting copper from copper ores or salts
25. Development of pottery in the ancient world: manufacture, slips and paints
26. Ancient means of navigation
27. Aristotle and his importance for science in the Medieval World
28. Aristotle's classification of the sciences
29. The art of fermentation: ancient wine making, beer and brewing
30. Development of Greek arms and armour, some important issues
31. Poison gas and the Greek Fire, the claws of Archimedes and other tools of war
32. Surgery in classical Greece
33. Ancient make-up and make-up techniques: Egyptian, Greek and Roman
34. Waste water disposal in ancient cities
35. Energy from water: various technologies and their efficiency
36. Entertainment at Petronius': the Satyricon as cookbook
37. Ancient beekeeping
38. Greek alchemy
39. Important inventions in ancient agriculture
40. Telegraphy and communications in the ancient world

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