Carleton University

46.510  Canada and International Affairs

Instructor: David B. Carment

Fall Term, 1999
Office: Paterson Hall 2A54 Tuesday 2:30-5:30
Office Hours: Mondays, Thursdays, 2:30-4:30 Paterson 2A46


This is a one term course on Canada and international affairs. The first part of the course will focus on current and emerging issues in international affairs. Once students become familiar with these issues, they will apply what they have learned through participation in an interactive computer simulation involving other university teams around the world. As they attempt to implement policy initiatives and work in teams to resolve international disputes, students will confront foreign policy issues in a context that provides an authenticity of experience. The objective is to enable participants to create and test organizational skills, understand the interdependence of international issues, appreciate cultural differences and approaches to world problems, and use computers for multi-nation communications. The class will represent Canada in the 1999 simulation. The simulation is intended to focus on a few primary issues in the world and how these issues are related; it is not intended to cover all international issues that exist today. The main subgames are: International Trade, International Debt and Development, Global Environment, Human Rights,World Health, Arms Control and International Crime. There is no cost for participating in the simulation. The cost will be covered by a grant from the Centre for Security and Defence Studies at Carleton University.

Classes will consist of lectures, student presentations, preparation for the simulation and on-line computer simulation. Students are expected to come to class having done all the required reading and prepared to contribute and listen to viewpoints of other students. Evaluation is divided between the first and second halves of the course consisting of, respectively, seminar and simulation work. Each student is expected to present an in-class summary of at least one of the readings. Prior to the simulation there will be a group presentation based on the draft policy brief. The revised and updated brief will be submitted to the instructors following the end of the simulation. The grading for the course is as follows:

Class Participation and Individual Presentation 20%

ICONS simulation participation (October 21 - November 22) 20%

Group Evaluation and Policy Brief - 5 pages 30%

Individual Paper - 15 Pages 30%



Students are not required to purchase any single text for the course. However, there are several good sources on Canada and International Affairs.

Canada Among Nations

Canadian Foreign Policy Journal

Canadian Journal of Development Studies

International Journal

"Exploring Canada’s Options on Global Issues", NPSIA Working Paper Series

"Canada’s Foreign Policy: Principles and Priorities for the Future" Report of the Special Joint Committee of the Senate and the House of Commons Reviewing Canadian Foreign Policy (1994).


PART ONE - Canada and International Affairs

1. September 14 - Introduction

Doern, Bruce and John Kirton (1996) "Foreign Policy" in Border Crossings (Chapter 10).

Farson, Stuart (1999) "Is Canadian Intelligence Being Re-invented?" in Canadian Foreign Policy (Volume 6, No. 2).

Nossal, Kim (1995) "The Democratization of Canadian Foreign Policy" in Canada Among Nations (Chapter 2).

Pearson, Michael (1999) "Reflections on Implementing Canadian Foreign Policy" in Canadian Foreign Policy (Volume 6, No. 2).

Potter, Evan (1996) "Redesigning Canadian Diplomacy in an Age of Fiscal Austerity" in Canada Among Nations (Chapter 2).


Additional Items:

* assign students to issue groups and to specific roles within issue groups; roles will include representatives from DFAIT, CIDA, DND, PCO and NGOs

* discuss requirements for policy brief

* review conference list and agenda items

* discuss in-class presentations and seminar

* important: each group should meet to prepare the first draft (1 page outline) of their policy briefs.

* drafts are to be distributed to each class member by Friday October 8. Students should use the list of agenda items for upcoming ICONS conferences as a guide when developing their respective proposals and recommendations.

* in addition to conventional research material, students are strongly encouraged to use INTERNET resources to obtain information for their papers. Each student is required to have either a CHAT account or another account that gives full 24 HR access to the WWW. The main ICONS Website provides several useful links to government documents, treaties and other resources: useful linked sites are:   and For economic, political, social and environmental indicators of participating country performance, consult the Country Indicators for Foreign Policy Project at: For DFAIT performance and priorities see:   For Policy Option papers see:



2. September 21 - Human Rights

Arneil, Barbara and Kim Manning (1997) "Engendering Peacebuilding" in Canadian Foreign Policy (Volume 5, No. 1).

Cooper, Andrew and Leslie Pal (1996) "Human Rights and Security Policy" in Border Crossings (Chapter 9).

Mendes, Errol. (1997) "Tigers, Asian Values and Labour Standards: Helping the Tigers to Set Themselves Free" in Canada Among Nations (Chapter 8).


* issue team discussion and brainstorming


3. September 28 - Arms Control and International Security

Bain, William (1999) "Against Crusading: The Ethic of Human Security and Canadian Foreign Policy" in Canadian Foreign Policy (Volume 6, No. 3).

Cameron, Max "Democratization of Foreign Policy: The Ottawa Process as a Model" in Canadian Foreign Policy (Volume 5, No.3).

Hampson, Fen and Dean Oliver (1998) "Pulpit Diplomacy: A Critical Assessment of the Axworthy Doctrine" in International Journal (Volume 53, No. 3).


4. October 5 - Trade

Dymond, William (1999) "The MAI: A Sad and Melancholy Tale" in Canada Among Nations (Chapter 2).

Acheson, Keith and Christopher Maule (1999) "Battlefields and Birds: New Directions for Cultural Policy" in Canada Among Nations (Chapter 8).

Rowlands, Dane (1999) "High Finance and Low Politics: Canada and the Asian Financial Crisis" in Canada Among Nations (Chapter 6).

Wolf, Robert and John Curtis (1997) "Providing Leadership for the Trade Regime" in Canada Among Nations (Chapter 7).


Additional Items:

* Submission of draft Policy Briefs on Friday October 8 to all 510 students for review and discussion on the 12th and 19th.

* Completion of ICONS questionnaire accessible through the ICONS web-site

* begin ICONS tutorial


5. October 12 - Health, the Environment and International Crime

Berthiaume, Denis (1997) "Hemispheric Addiction: Canada and Drug Trafficking in the Americas"

The FOCAL Papers.

Health Industries "Canada’s International Business Strategy, 1997-1998."

Rozee, K.R. (1995) "Emerging Pathogens in the Epidemic Era" Commentary (Number 58).

Toner, Glen and Tim Conway (1996) "Environmental Policy" in Border Crossings (Chapter 5).


Additional Items:

* First Presentation of Policy Briefs ( A 10 minute presentation of a 1 Page Outline)


6. October 19 - Development

Draimin, Tim and Brian Tomlinson (1997) "Is There a Future for Canadian Aid in the Twentieth-First Century?" in Canada Among Nations (Chapter 8).

Pratt, Cranford (1998) "DFAIT’s Takeover Bid of CIDA" in Canadian Foreign Policy (Volume 5, Number 2).

North-South Institute (1998) Canadian Corporations and Social Responsibility (Chapters 5 and 7).

North-South Institute (1999) Civil Society and Global Change (Chapters 2 and 4).


Additional Items:

* Presentation of remaining Policy Briefs (10 minute presentation of a 1 Page Outline)

* important: once the briefs have been reviewed and authorized by the class, the revised communiqués should be immediately sent out to all other countries participating in the ICONS simulation. This will give counterparts in these teams several days to review Canadian positions (and recommendations) regarding issue areas and upcoming conferences.


III THE SIMULATION 7. - 12. October 18 - November 19

4 Classes in Total (simulation begins October 18)

1. During the simulation, students are responsible for managing and monitoring all messages received and sent including those by other Team Canada groups. At least one representative from each group should be assigned to monitor the agendas of the all Team Canada groups to ensure policy coordination. Each country receives a password. This password is for use by Team Canada only. Under no circumstances should you reveal your true identity or password to other teams during the simulation.

2. All daily communiques and conference proceedings are archived by sender, date, issue and type. There are terminals in the Resource Centre that are dedicated to Team Canada use during class hours. You can also access ICONS from any terminal on campus using either a modem or ethernet connection. Netscape and IE simplify access to the web-site but they are not necessary. It is also possible to access ICONS using non-GUI interfaces. This is important to remember if TCP access is temporarily shut down.

3. Members of all policy groups should coordinate with their designated person(s) on terminal duty when sending messages to other country teams. Anyone can send a messages as long as (a) the person on terminal duty is aware of (or has read) the communiqué being sent, and (b) at least one other members of the group have seen the final version of the communiqué in question. Messages to Simulation Control (SIMCON) requesting procedural clarifications can be sent at any time by anyone.

4. Policy groups should send several significant messages to each country (i.e., proposals, recommendations, offers, etc.) at the outset of the sim in preparation for the conferences and post-conference negotiations.

5. There will be at least two scheduled 60 minute conferences for each issue area. Students are responsible for "showing up" at scheduled conferences at least 15 minutes before the conference begins. Every conference is administered by SIMCON. SIMCON sets the agenda, debriefs country-teams and tracks time usage The first conference will be for exploration of the various sub-issues and for agenda setting. The second conference will be for dispute resolution and negotiation. Additional conferences can be scheduled - but they will need to be coordinated and monitored by the country teams. Please refer to the ICONS schedule for conference dates and times. All teams will be evaluated on the number, quality and realism of the messages they send during the simulation.

4. There are no required readings during the simulation. Government documents are however a very useful source of information. Students are strongly encouraged to spend their time preparing for upcoming conferences by contacting their counterparts from other country teams. This is the only way to establish a strong position and to generate enough support (prior to the conferences) to get your team's proposals passed during on-line conferences.

5. Items on the agenda during the simulation:

* distribution of messages to appropriate groups for discussion

* updates from each group on Canadian policy and reactions

* discussion of problems and conflicts with other country teams (or SIMCON)

* conference updates and strategies

* assessment of overall progress and performance

* there will be a scheduled 1 hour Policy Coordination meeting every Tuesday for the duration of the simulation. Each team should send a representative to discuss each team’s agenda, objectives and strategies.



11. November 23 - Debriefing

*In- Class Post Simulation Debriefing

* Complete post-simulation questionnaire


12. November 30 - Live Video Conference with other Country Teams

* Final Draft of Issue Papers due

* Course summary and evaluations

A. Format of Policy Briefs

a) The draft brief should be no more than a 1 page outline of 250-500 words. It should address the following:

1. National Goals and Policies: third party interests, past-future linkages, vital and secondary interests.

2. Problems facing the Nation: For whom are they a problem? Why are they a problem?

3. Problem -specific Goals: For each issues what is the most and least desireable outcome?

4. Alternative Policies to Achieve Goals: Instruments, objectives and strategies.

5. Evaluation of the Alternative Policies: Allies and their interests.

6. Recommendations and Final Strategy. Based on probability of success and importance of issue.


b) The final policy brief is to be no longer than 5 pages. It should be modified in light of simulation events and outcomes and comments from country team members The paper should specify objectives met and indicate why; identify the interests and activities of relevant actors and; identify areas of success/failure.


B. Format of Presentations on Readings

Required course readings will be presented in class by individuals. Critiques of the readings should be summarised on one (1) page to be circulated among the students the Monday before each class. The summaries, as well as the presentation, should focus on the reading’s argument, its assumptions, its substantive content, its merits relative to the other readings, and its implications for policy. It should also suggest areas for improvement.


C. Format of Individual Essay

The individual paper should focus on an issue area, Canadian foreign policy or on a topic of your choice. Students are strongly encouraged to update their working drafts during the simulation:

A Title Page

A Statement of the Problem which identifies the major problem addressed and how it fits into international mediation

A Research Question which identifies the specific research questions associated with your paper

A Theoretical Framework


An Argument which is the substance of the paper

Conclusions which identify the findings of your research

A Bibliography which refers to materials actually used in your research paper


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