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Gitte Lindgaard

 

B.Sc (Hons), M.Sc., PhD (Monash), R.N. (Switzerland)

 

Professor, NSERC/Cognos Chair in User-Centred Product Design

 

Director Human Oriented Technology Lab (HOTLab)

 

About Me

Students

Publications

 

 

Main Research Areas:

Relationships between aesthetics, emotion, and usability

Multimodality and the use of graphs in user interface design

User-Centred Design (USD)

Human judgment and decision making

 

 

ABOUT ME

 

Long ago I was a Dane living in Switzerland. I am now an Australian living in Canada. My parents wanted me to study medicine, but I decided to become a registered nurse instead because I wanted to follow the patients more closely. Doctors pop in and out; nurses are there 24/7. Very early in the training program, the chief surgeon at our hospital took the whole class into the operating theatre parading a kidney dish containing a lump of meat with two big holes. One was supposed to be there, the other not. He was obviously thrilled by what turned out to be a perforated stomach, but I realized there and then that my interest was not in sick or malfunctioning organs. I wanted to know what happens to people when they are seriously ill, when they are scared in the extreme, devoid of their usual social and material props, being more or less dependent on others for attending to even the most basic human needs. I wanted to see and learn what happens to human relationships when a member of a family is very sick or even dying. I had no idea that observing people like that was called psychology. And I did not realize that psychology could be studied without first undergoing several years of intense nursing training, culminating in professional certification that I basically did not want.

 

Eventually, the penny dropped, and I found my way into University after carefully selecting what looked like the toughest psychology course around. Why the toughest? I don’t know. I thought I wanted to be a clinician, but the course set me off in different direction, namely human judgment , thinking, and decision making. I remember vividly when, as a five-year old kid, I had done something that upset my mother enough to exclaim: “Think, child!”. My response: “But mom, how do you think? earned me a hefty clip on the ear, which took me completely by surprise. I was really asking what it was inside my head that made me think and do the wrong thing when that was not what I wanted. How and why did I arrive at a wrong decision that then got me into trouble?

 

I have never been able quite to let go of this interest in human decision making. In my M.Sc. research, I investigated how diagnosticians synthesize a patient’s signs and symptoms into a medical diagnosis. The judgmental biases that I learned about in that work scared me, but it was not until I took ill a few years ago that I decided seriously to pursue this line of work again. In my PhD research I asked how and when computer users consult help files, what information they need, and how this should be presented to be useful. Coming straight from University into human factors in telecommunications, I thought the world was made of statistically significant differences. Well, holy smoke – what a mistake! Instead I began to learn how the same data can be presented in many different ways to ‘speak’ to different audiences. The engineers wanted answers to highly specific questions, not complex reasoning about how these answers had been derived; management wanted dollar statements. Operations staff wanted arguments with which to pacify unions, system users wanted better systems, marketing wanted slogans, and sales staff wanted endless features. My Human Factors group was supposed to do research, but as time went on and competition became a reality in the telecommunications arena, we increasingly became in-house consultants with no time ever to read the literature or perform experiments. Yet, I still wanted to understand how people make decisions, so when the opportunity arose to return to research arose in the form of a generously NSERC/Industry-sponsored Research Chair here at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada, I just had to grab it. In my third career, I am now in the fortunate position of being able to devote myself to pursuing what I like most, together with a great bunch of students and colleagues, in a supportive environment. The only snag is that my family is now half a globe away; that reality is very painful and by far most difficult lesson I have had to learn so far about human relationships.

 

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STUDENTS

 

PhD:     Judy Brown

            Cathy Dudek

            Irvine Johnston

            Jobina Li (Cognitive Science)

            Devjani Sen

            Bruce Tsuji      

 

MA:     Patrick Noonan

            Livia Sumegi

            Marion Lanktree (Industrial Design, co-supervised)

            Diana Wilhelm (Industrial Design, co-supervised)

 

Hons:   Andrew Bowman

            Milica Stojmenovic

 

International:

            PhD: Kon Mouzakis, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia (co-supervision with Ying Leung, Hong Kong)

 

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PUBLICATIONS

 

Books authored:

Lindgaard, G. (1994). Usability testing and system evaluation: A guide for designing useful computer systems, Chapman & Hall, London.

Howard, S., Hammond, J. & Lindgaard, G. (Eds.) (1997).  Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT'97, IFIP TC13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 14-18th July, Sydney, Australia

 

Chapters in books

Lindgaard, G. & Triggs, T.J. (1990).  Can artificial intelligence outperform real people?: The potential of computerised decision aids in medical diagnosis, in W. Karwowski, A. Genaidy & S.S. Asfour (Eds.), Computer-Aided Design: Applications in Ergonomics and Safety, Taylor & Francis, .

Lindgaard, G., Brown, & A, Bronsther, A. (2006). Interface design challenges in virtual space, in T.R.F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory Practice, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Ch. 9.

Lindgaard, G. & Parush, A. (2008). Utility and experience in the evolution of usability, in E. Law, E. Hvannenberg, G. Cockton & J. Vanderdonckt (eds), Maturing usability: quality in software, interaction and value, COST 294-MAUSE Book Project, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Ch. 10, 222-242.

Oakley, K., Lindgaard, G., Kroeger, P., Miller, J. & Hebert, P, (2008). Challenges of interface design for mobile technology in a closed environment, in J. Lumsden (ed) Handbook of research on user interface design and evaluation for mobile technology, IGI Global publishers, Hersheys PA, 1012-1027.

Pulsifer, P.L., Parush, A., Lindgaard, G. & Taylor, D.R.F. (2006). The development of the cybercartographic atlas of Antarctica. In. Taylor, D. R. F. (ed), Cybercartography: Theory and Practice. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Ch. 20.

Roberts, S., Parush, A. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). Cognitive Theories and Tools to Support     Navigation of Electronic Spaces, in T.R.F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and Practice, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Ch. 10.

Trbovich, P., Lindgaard, G. & Dillon, D. (2006). The role of multimodal interfaces in spatially-based applications, to appear in T.R.F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and Practice,    Elsevier, Amsterdam, Ch. 11.

 

Papers in refereed journals

Day, D., Lindgaard, G. & Noyes, J. (2009). In memoriam Brian Shackel 1927-2007, Interacting with Computers, 21 (5-6), 324-325.

Lindgaard, G. (2009). Early traces of usability as a science and as a profession, Interacting with Computers, 21 (5-6), 350-353.

Lindgaard, G. Dudek, C., Sen, D. Noonan, P. & Sumegi, L. (2009). If it is appealing, is it really also usable? And trustworthy as well, submitted to Transactions On CHI (TOCHI).

Lindgaard, G. & Narasimhan, S. (2009). Mobile HCI: thinking beyond the screen-keyboard-mouse interaction paradigm, International Journal of Mobile HCI, 1(1), 24-36.

Lindgaard, G., Pyper, C., Frize, M. & Walker, R. (2009). Does Bayes have it?: Decision support systems in diagnostic medicine, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 39(3), 524-532.

Lindgaard, G. & Ralph, S. (2009). Diagnosing ambiguous cases: A study of physicians’ information integration strategies, submitted to the Journal of Medical Decision Making, 2009.

Lindgaard, G. & Triggs, T.J. (2009). Diagnosing ambiguous cases: A study of nurses’ information integration strategies, submitted to the Journal of Medical Decision Making, 2009.

Noël, S., Dumoulin, S., Lindgaard, G. & Stewart, J. (2009). „Undisciplined squads of emotions“: How conflicting emotional cues are interpreted in virtual environments, submitted to International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, July.

Diaper, D. & Lindgaard, G. (2008). West meets east: Adapting Activity Theory for HCI & CSCW applications?, Interacting with Computers, 20(2), 40-46.

Lindgaard, G., Pyper, C., Frize, M., Walker, R., Boutilier, C., Hui, B., Narasimhan, S., Folkens, J., Winogron, B., Egan, P. & Jones, C. (2008). Intelligent decision support in medicine: Back to Bayes? Journal of universal computer science, 14(6), 2720-2736.

Lindgaard, G. (2007). Aesthetics, visual appeal, usability, and user satisfaction: What do the user’s eyes tell the user’s brain?, Australian journal of emerging technologies and society (AJETS), 5 (1), 1-16.

Lindgaard, G. &  Narasimhan, S. (2007). Factors influencing feature-usage in work-related communication, Behaviour & Information Technology, 27(2) 153-168.

Chattratichart, J. & Lindgaard, G. (2007). A new ‘figure of merit’ of the UEM effectiveness metric, accepted for publication in International Journal of Human Computer Studies, submitted June 2007.

Sen, D., Lindgaard, G. & Patrick, A. (2007). Symbolic aspects of university homepage design: What appeals to different cultures?, to appear in MMI Interaktiv – Online Journal zu Fragen der Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion (issues concerning Human Machine Interaction), July 2007, 65-71.

Brown, J., Lindgaard, G. & Biddle, R. (2007). Analyzing Artefact-Mediated Interactions, submitted to International Society for Theoretical Psychology (ISTP) annals.

Brown, J., Strickland, L. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). Activity theory as a psychology for Human Computer Interaction, submitted to Interacting with Computers, 16 May 06.

Lindgaard, G. (2006). Notions of thoroughness, efficiency, and validity: Are they valid in HCI practice?,The International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 36 (12)1069-1074..

Lindgaard, G., Fernandes, G., Dudek, C. & Brown, J. (2006). Attention web designers: You have 50 milliseconds to make a good first impression!, Behaviour & Information Technology. 25, 115-126 (awarded best paper for 2006, 25th. Anniversary of BIT).

Lindgaard, G., Dillon, R.F., Trbovich, P, White, R., Fernandes, G., Lundahl, S. & Pinnamaneni, A. (2006). User Needs Analysis and requirements engineering: Theory and practice, Interacting with Computers, 18 (1), 47-70.

Lauriault, T. &  Lindgaard, G. (2006). New and promising territory? Exploring the use of olfaction in cybercartography, Cartographica, 41(1 Spring), 73-91.

Lindgaard, G. (2005). Human judgment, decision theory, and technology: Applications of Bayes’ Theorem, History and philosophy of psychology Bulletin. 17 (2), 29-39.

Lindgaard, G, (2004). Adventurers versus nit-pickers on affective computing, Interacting with Computers, 16 (4), 723-728.

Lindgaard, G. (2004). Making the business our business: One path to value-added HCI, Interactions, 11(3), 12-17.

Lindgaard, G. & Whitfield, A. (2004). Integrating aesthetics within an evolutionary and psychological framework, Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 5 (1), 73-90.

Lindgaard, G. & Dudek, C. (2003). What is this evasive beast we call user satisfaction?, Interacting with Computers, 15 (3), 429-452.

Lindgaard, G. & Caple, D. (2001).  A case study in iterative keyboard design using Participatory Design techniques, Applied Ergonomics, 32, 71-80.

Lindgaard, G. (1995).  Human Performance in fault diagnosis: Can expert systems help, Interacting with Computers, 7 (3), 254-272.

Lindgaard, G. (1992).  Evaluating user interfaces in context: The ecological value of time-and- motion studies, Applied Ergonomics, 23, (2),105-114.

Lindgaard, G., Bednall, E. & Chessari, J. (1991).  Improving User Performance, IEEE JSA C (Journal of Selected Areas in Communications) special issue on Human Factors, 9, (4), 506-517.

Lindgaard, G., & Clark, D.W. (1988).  Matching telecommunications to people, Telecommunications Journal of Australia, 38, (2), 12-16.

Lindgaard, G., & Perry, L. (1988).  Making life easier for computer novices: Some factors determining initial performance, Ergonomics, 31, (5), 803-816.

Lindgaard, G., & Perry, L. (1988).  Towards a solution of vocabulary problems in computing: A measure of goodness of fit, Ergonomics, 31, (5), 785-801.

Lindgaard, G., Chessari, J., & lhsen, E. (1987).  What makes pictorial information comprehensible to the user?, Australian Telecommunications Research, 21, (2), 17-29.

Lindgaard, G. (1985).  Human factors in telecommunications research, Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 1, (2), 3-7.

 

Papers in refereed conference proceedings

Lindgaard, G., Dudek, C., Tsuji, B., Sen, D. Noonan, P., Lundahl, S., MacMillan, D. & Seguin, P. (2009). Deriving user requirements for a CBRNE support system, submitted to 7th. International Conference on information systems for crisis response and management, May 2-5, Seattle, WA.

Dudek, C., Lindgaard, G. & Pineau, S. (2009). Beauty and the beast: Objective measures of the visual appeal of web pages, submitted to the International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) 2010, 17-20 July, Miami.

Buie, E., Dray, S., Instone, K., Jain, J., Lindgaard, G. & Lund, A. (2009). Research practitioner interaction, Workshop proposal submitted to CHI 2010.

Lindgaard, G., Pyper, C., Folkens, J. & Frize, M. (2009). Assessing the usefulness of a pediatric diagnostic decision support system, submitted to CHI 2010

**Buie, E., Dray, S., Jain, J., Instone, K., Lindgaard, G., & Lund, A. (2009). Researcher-practitioner interaction, submitted to CHI’2010, July.

Chattratichart, J. & Lindgaard, G. (2009). Is the ‘figure of merit’ really so meritorious?, Proceedings  INTERACT’09, Stockholm, 26-28 August.

Lindgaard, G., Tsuji, B., Sen, D., Lundahl, S., MacMillan, D., Mongeau, M. & Anderson, M. (2009). A system supporting public health crisis management, Proceedings IADIS International conference on e-healh, July 2009. Best paper award

Noël, S., Dumoulin, S. & Lindgaard, G. (2009). Interpreting human and avatar facial expressions in context, Proceedings INTERACT’09, Stockholm, August 2009.

 

Brown, J., Biddle, R. & Lindgaard, G. (2008). Stories, sketches, and lists: Developers and interaction designers interacting through artefacts, Proceedings Agile 2008, Toronto, August 4-8.

Brown, J., Biddle, R. & Lindgaard, G. (2008)  analyzing talk-and artefact-mediated interactions from a CHAT perspective, Proceedings of the International society for cultural and activity research (ISCAR) 2008, San Diego,  9-13 September

Chattratichart, J. & Lindgaard, G. (2008). A comparative evaluation of heuristic-based usability inspection methods, in Proceedings CHI’08 Extended Abstracts, 2213-2220.

Ferres, L., Verkhogliad, P., Sumegi, L., Boucher, L., Lachance, M., & Lindgaard, G. (2008). A syntactic analysis of accessibility to a corpus of statistical graphs. In Proceedings of the 2008 international Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility (W4a) (Beijing, China, April 21 - 22, 2008). W4A '08. ACM, New York, NY, 37-44.

Hassenzahl, M., Lindgaard, G. & Tractinsky, N. (2008). The study of visual aesthetics in human computer interaction, Proceedings Dagstuhl Seminar 08292, 10-13 July, Dagstuhl, Germany, available at http://www.dagstuhl.de/en/program/calendar/semhp/?semnr=08292

Lindgaard, G., Litwinska, J., & Dudek, C. (2008). Judging web page visual appeal: Do East and West really differ?, to appear in Proceedings International Conference on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction, IADIS 2008, Amsterdam, NL, 25-27 July.

Pyper, C., Frize, M., Lindgaard, G. & Walker, R. (2008). Bayesian-based diagnostic decision-support for pediatrics (PedBDS), Proceedings 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Vancouver, August 20-24.,

Sen, D. & Lindgaard, G. (2008). The impact of prototypicality on aesthetic evaluation: Towards a better understanding of affective components of interface design, Proceedings International Conference on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction, IADIS 2008, Amsterdam, NL, 25-27 July.

 

Brown, J., Lindgaard, G. & Biddle, R. (2007). Analyzing artefact-mediated interactions, Proceedings International Society for Theoretical Psychology Conference ( ISTP 2007), Theoretical psychology beyond borders: Transdisciplianrity and internationalization, June 17-22, Toronto.

Carroll Somoza, K., Momtahan, K. & Lindgaard, G. (2007). Effects of a Computerized Cardiac Teletriage Decision Support System on Nurse Performance: Results of a Controlled Human Factors Experiment Using a Mid-Fidelity Prototype, Proceedings Medinfo 2007, August 24-27,  Brisbane, Australia.

Ferres. L., Verkhogliad, P. & Lindgaard,G. (2007). A dialogue interface to explore graphical representations of statistical data, to appear in Proceedings MICAI, Nov. 5.

Ferres, L. Verkhogliad, P. & Lindgaard, G. (2007). Using language as an accessibility tool: A system for natural language interaction with graphs over the web, Proceedings 20th International FLAIRS conference, May 7-9, Key West, Fl.

Ferres, L., Verkhogliad, P., Lindgaard, G., Boucher, L., Chretien, A. & Lachance, M. (2007). Improving accessibility to statistical graphs: The inspectGraph system, Proceedings ASSETS’07, 9th. International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, October 15-17, Tempe, AZ. . Nominated for best paper award.

Ferres, L.,  Verkhogliad, P.,  & Lindgaard, G. (2007). A Dialogue Interface to Explore Graphical Representations of Statistical Data, MICAI, 6th Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Aguascalientes, Mexico, Nov. 4-10.

Lindgaard, G. (2007). Intelligent decision support in medicine: Back to Bayes? Invited Keynote presentation, ECCE’07, Proceedings, European Conference on Cognitive Engineering, London, August 28-31.

Lindgaard, G. (2007). Introducing HCI into an organization: Making a convincing case for usability, Proceedings INTERACT’07, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 10-14 September.

Lindgaard, G. & Chattratichart, J. (2007). Usability testing: What have we overlooked? Proceedings CHI’07, ACM Publishers, New York. NY. honorable mention as best paper

Lindgaard, G. (2007). Medical decision making, Proceedings of CPA, Ottawa, June 7-9.

Mahlke, S. & Lindgaard, G. (2007). Emotional experience and quality perceptions of interactive products, in J. Jacko (ed), Human Computer Interaction Part 1, HCII 2007, LNCS 4550 (pp. 164-173). Springer Verlag, Berlin, 164-173.

Neal, L., Oakley, K., Lindgaard, G., Kaurman, D., Leimeister,  J. M. & Selker, T. (2007). Online health communities, Proceedings CH’07, ACM Publishers, New York. NY.

 

**Bennett, G., Lindgaard, G., Tsuji, B., Connelly, K.H., Siek, K.A., & Khan, S. (2006). Reality testing: HCI challenges in non-traditional environments, CHI’06 Extended Abstracts, Montreal, 1679-1682,.

Ferres, L., Parush, A., Roberts, S. &  Lindgaard, G. (2006). Helping people with visual impairments gain access to graphical information through natural language: The iGraph system, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Computers Helping people with special needs; 10th. International conference ICCHP 2006, Linz, Austria, July 11-13.

Ferres. L., Parush, A., Li, Z., Oppacher, Y. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). Representing and querying line graphs in natural language: the iGraph system, Proceedings Smart Graphics,  2006, July 23-25, Vancouver.

Ferres, L. Parush, A. Vekhogliad, P. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). Natural language interaction with graphical information, submitted to NAACL’07.

Ferres. L., Parush, A., Li, Z., Oppacher, Y. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). Representing and querying line graphs in natural language: the iGraph system, to appear in Proceedings Smart Graphics,  2006, July 23-25, Vancouver; also to appear in Lecture Notes for Computer Science (LNCS), Springer Verlag..

Neal, L., Lindgaard, G., Oakley, K., Hansen, D. & Kogan, S. (2006). Online Health Communities, SIG presented at CHI’06.

Parush, A. Ferres, L. Rasouli, M. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). Impact of external representation and task on graph comprehension. Proceedings 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, July 26-29, Vaancouver, Canada.

Philp, K., Narasimhan, S., Gauthier, M., Khan, S., Rasouli, M., Dunn, G., Lindgaard, G. & Parush, A. (2006). Applying UCD in cyber-cartography: The emergence of user interface concepts and designs, to appear in Proceedings GeoTech Event 2005, 18-21 June, Ottawa.

Sen, D. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). Around the world through homepages: What attracts and persuades foreign students?, Proceedings 114th. Annual APA convention, New Orleans, LA, 10-12 August.

Sen, D. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). If information has really evolved, why do our hearts rule our heads?, Proceedings 114th. Annual APA convention, New Orleans, LA, 10-12 August.

 

Brehaut, J., O’Connor, A. Tugwell, P., Lindgaard, G., Santesso, N., Lott, A., Saarimaki, A., Cranney, A. & Graham, I. (2005). Measuring the usability and usefulness of online patient decision aids: A demonstration of methods.

Lindgaard, G., Ferres, L., Parush, A., Tsuji, B. & Rasouli, M. (2005). Inclusive design: How multi-sensory user interfaces might work, IFIP TC13 Workshop, Human Computer Interaction, Namur, Belgium.

Lindgaard, G. Khan, S. & Tsuji, B. Ecological validity and behavioural measures in the usability testing of new applications: A reality usability workshop, Proceedings HCI 2005, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 2005.

Lindgaard, G. (2005). Cognitive errors in medical diagnosis: Designing a useful decision support system, to appear in Proceedings HCI International, Las Vegas, July.

Tsuji, B., Lindgaard, G. & Parush, A. (2005).Landmarks for navigators who are visually impaired, Proceedings International Cartographic Society (ICS)

Lindgaard, G. (2005). Notions of thoroughness, efficiency, and validity: Are they valid in HCI? To appear in Proceedings 4th International Cyberspace Conference on Ergonomics, Cyberg 05, Rhodes University, Cape Town, South Africa

Pilgrim C. J., Lindgaard G., & Leung Y. K., 2005. A Framework for Human-Web Interaction, Proceedings of the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (OZCHI 2004), Ergonomics Society of Australia, Wollongong.

Tsuji, B., Lindgaard, G., & Parush, A.  (2005). Landmarks for navigators who are visually impaired. Proceedings International Cartography Conference, a Coruña Spain, July 9-16 2005

 

Dormann, C. & Lindgaard, G. (2004). Developing innovative systems: creative ideation. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Interaction: Systems, Practice and Theory, Sydney, Australia, 2004. Creativity& Cognition Studio Press

Lindgaard, G. (2004). Is the notion of validity valid in HCI practice? Proceedings WWCS2004 (Work with Computer Systems), Kuala Lumpur, June 29-July 3.

Lindgaard, G. (2004). New wine in old bottles? Coming to grips with multimedia, multimodal user interfaces, to appear in Proceedings WWCS2004 (Work with Computer Systems), Kuala Lumpur, June 29-July 3.

Lindgaard, G., Chatrattichart, J., Rauch, T. & Brodie, J. (2004). Towards increasing the reliability of expert reviews, to appear in Proceedings UPA 2004.

Pilgrim, C., Lindgaard, G. & Leung, Y. (2004). Supplemental tools for web site navigation – user expectations versus current practice, Proceedings of the 18th British HCI Annual Conference (HCI 2004), Leeds, UK.

Pilgrim C. J., Lindgaard G., & Leung Y. K., 2004. An Investigation into Factors Influencing User Selection of WWW Sitemaps, Proceedings of the 6h Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction (APCHI 2004), Rotorua, N.Z. Computer Human Interaction, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3101, Springer.

Quinn, J. Carker, J., Rohlfs, S. & Lindgaard, G. (2004). Information architecture for a Government website, to appear in Proceedings WWCS2004 (Work with Computer Systems), Kuala Lumpur, June 29-July 3.

Rasouli, M., Philp, K., Khan, S., Dunn, G. Lindgaard, G. & Parush, A. (2004). The application of a user-centred design in the development of two web-based educational cybercartographic atlases, GAGONT (The Ontario Division of Canadian Association of Geographers) Conference, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Roberts, S., Parush, A. & Lindgaard, G. (2004). Navigating through virtual space, to appear in Proceedings WWCS2004 (Work with Computer Systems), Kuala Lumpur, June 29-July 3.

Tsuji, B., Biddle, R. & Lindgaard,G. (2004). Making signs talk: A device to assist people who are visually impaired, OCE-CITO innovators Showcase, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November, 2004.

Tsuji, B., Hagen, L., Herdman, C., Lefevre, J., & Lindgaard, G.  (2004). Two steps into a cybercartographic landscape.  Paper presented at the Canadian Association of Geographers of Ontario, October 29-30, Waterloo, ON.

 

Faregh, N. & Lindgaard, G. (2003). Evaluation of a prognostic decision support system in a neonatal intensive care unit, Proceedings JDN’03, Vancouver BC, November.

Fernandes, G., Lindgaard, G., Dillon, R. & Wood, J. (2003). Judging the appeal of web sites, Proceedings 4th World Congress on the Management of Electronic Commerce, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, 15 -17 January.

Lindgaard, G. (2003). The misapplication of engineering models to business decisions, INTERACT’03, Zurich, Switzerland, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 367- 374.

Lindgaard, G. (2003). From start to finish: How to build an effective usability and accessibility project plan, Proceedings Web site usability and accessibility for Government.

Lindgaard, G. & Madore, S. (2003). The impact of interactive technology on worker efficiency: A job assessment, Proceedings 4th World Congress on the Management of Electronic Commerce, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, 15-17 January.

Steiger, P. Lindgaard, G., Felix, D. & Millard, N. (2003). The business case of HCI, Proceedings INTERACT’03, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1049-1050.

 

Dudek, C. & Lindgaard, G. (2002). Measuring user satisfaction on the web: stories people tell, Proceedings Design and Emotion 2002, Loughborough, UK.

Lindgaard, G. (2002). Deconstructing silos: The business value of usability in the 21st Century, invited keynote presentation, to appear in Proceedings 17th. IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing) World Computer Congress, Montreal, August 25-30.

Lindgaard, G. & Dudek, C. (2002). High appeal versus high usability: Implications for user satisfaction, HF2002 Human Factors Conference, Melbourne, Australia, November 25-27.

Lindgaard, G. & Dudek, C. (2002). User satisfaction, aesthetics and usability: Beyond reductionism, Proceedings 17th. IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing) World Computer Congress, Montreal, August 25-30.

Lindgaard, G. & Millard, N. (2002). The business value of HCI: How can we do better?, Proceedings  20th. Conference on Human Factors in computing systems, CHI’02, 928-929.

Lindgaard, G. & Narasimhan, S. (2002). The importance of User Roles in feature bundling decisions in wireless handheld devices: Strategic User Needs Analysis (SUNA), 17th. IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing) World Computer Congress, Montreal, August 25-30.

Pilgrim, C.J., Leung, Y.K. & Lindgaard, G. (2002). An Exploratory Study of WWW Browsing Strategies, Proceedings of the 5h Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction (APCHI 2002), Beijing, China.

 

Lindgaard, G. (2001). From the ashes of disaster into a human factors boom: The legacy of large databases, Proceedings HCI International, New Orleans, August 5-10.

Lindgaard, G. & Dudek, C. (2001). Is a great experience merely satisfying, and does appeal equate high subjective usability? Proceedings International Conference on Affective Human Factors Design, Singapore, June 27-29.

Lindgaard, G. & Whitfield, A. (2001). Usability, Aesthetics, and the User Experience: A Theoretical Proposal, Proceedings International Conference on Affective Human Factors Design, Singapore, June 27-29.

 

Lindgaard, G. (1999). Does emotional appeal determine the usability of web sites, CYBERG ’99, Western Australia.

Lindgaard, G. (1998). Designing CSCW tools to support cooperative research, Proceedings OZCHI ’98, Adelaide.

Lindgaard, G. (1998). Beware of human potholes – Alias: If only we had known, Proceedings MIS Annual Conference, March, Adelaide.

Lindgaard, G. (1996).  Slicing elephants: successful implementation of a human factors programme, Proceedings APCHI '96 (Asia Pacific Computer Human Interaction Conference), Singapore, June 1996.

Nielsen, J., Lindgaard, G., Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L., Vendelo, M. Danielsen, 0. & Georgsen, M. (1997).  User Requirements capture for a multimedia CSCW system, Proceedings INTERACT'97, Sydney.

Lindgaard, G. (1995).  Cementing human factors into product design: Moving beyond policies, Proc. 15th. International Symposium on Human Factors in Telecommunications, Melbourne, 361-371.

Lindgaard, G. (1994).  Human performance in fault diagnosis: Can expert systems help?, Proceedings OZCHI'94.

Lindgaard, G. (1993).  Widening the usability horizon beyond HCI: A navel-gazing path to improved customer services, Proceedings IHFT93 International Symposium Human Factors in Telecommunications, Darmstadt, Germany, May 11-14.

Lindgaard, G. (1993).  Some important factors for successful technology transfer, Proceedings IFIP Working Conference on Diffusion, Transfer & Implementation of Information Technology, Seven Springs Mountain Resort, Oct. 10-13.

Lindgaard, G.(1992). Getting HCI on the agenda: What's the message, Proceedings OZCHI'92, Annual CHISIG Conference, Gold Coast, November.

Howard, S. Kaplan, I. & Lindgaard, G. (1992).  HCI in Australia., Proceedings CHI92, 1Oth.  Annual Conference, Human Factors in Computing Systems, Monterey, California, May 3-7, 573-575.

Lindgaard, G. (1990).  Getting your Help System Right: A Recipe for Optimising the System Design/Implementation Phase, Proceedings 13th.  International Symposium HFT'90 Human Factors in Telecommunications, Turin, Italy, pp. 7-16.

Lindgaard, G. (1990).  HCI through the microscope: Revealing forests or trees?, Proceedings CHISIG Second Annual Conference, Melbourne.

 

Lindgaard, G. (1989).  Defining what helps: An iterative approach to systems design Proceedings 25th. Annual Conference Ergonomics Society of Australia, Canberra, November 27-29.

Lindgaard, G. (1988). Matching telecommunications to people: Human factors in telecommunications, Proceedings ANZAAS Centenary Congress, University of Sydney.

Lindgaard, G. (1988). The real issues in ergonomics in the office, Proceedings Conference National Office Automation, ACS, Melbourne.

Lindgaard, G. (1988). Cognitive ergonomics: Facts and fiction, Proceedings of the Australian Computer Conference, ACC88.

Lindgaard, G. (1988).  Should systems designers need to bother with the notion of mental models?, Proceedings of the International Ergonomics Association 10th. Congress, Sydney, Vol. 2, 630-632.

Lindgaard, G. (1988).  Strategic planing for the implementation of office automation: A case study, Proceedings of the Australian Computer Society, Victorian Branch Conference.  Also published in the Australian computer Society Victorian Bulletin, June 1988, 15-19.

Lindgaard, G., & Chessari, J. (1988).  Why users get stuck: Exploration of the nature of beginners' problems with interactive computers, Proceedings of the International Ergonomics Association 10th. International Congress, Vol. 2, 681-683.

Chessari, J., & Lindgaard, G. (1988).  Providing meaningful pictorial information for users of technological equipment, Proceedings of the International Ergonomics Association 10th.  International Congress, Vol. 2, 560-562.

Lindgaard, G. & Ihsen, E. (1987).  More pictures, fewer words in technological instructions?  Proceedings ]4th.Experimental Psychology Conference, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales.

Lindgaard, G. (1986).  Cognitive processes in interactive computing: A multi-disciplinary approach to practical and theoretical understanding, Proceedings Australian Psychological Society, 21st.  Annual Conference, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland.

Lindgaard, G. (1986).  Performance in interactive computing: Metaphors versus the real thing, Proceedings 13th Experimental Psychology Conference, Monash University, Erskine House, Lorne, Victoria:

Lindgaard, G. (1985).  The role of vocabulary in simple interactive computing tasks, Proceedings 12th Experimental Psychology Conference, University of Newcastle, New South Wales.

Lindgaard, G., & Perry, L. (1985).  Exploration of the learning process for new users of a simple message handling system, Proceedings of the 11th  International Symposium on Human Factors in Telecommunications, Sevigne, France.

Perry, L., & Lindgaard, G. (1985).  What's in a name?  Preferences and performance with different sets of vocabulary for message handling system, Proceedings of the I lth.  International Symposium on Human Factors in Telecommunications, Sevigne, France.

Lindgaard, G., & Triggs, T. (1984).  The use of diagnostic information by nurses in different symptom contexts, I, Proceedings 11th Experimental Psychology Conference, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria.

Lindgaard, G., & Triggs, T. (1984).  The use of diagnostic information by nurses in different symptom contexts, II, Proceedings 11th Experimental Psychology Conference, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria.

 

** Names ordered alphabetically rather than by weight of contribution

 

Technical reports:

Lindgaard, G., Dudek, C. Noonan, P., Sen, D. & Tsuji, B. (2009). PROBE: A preliminary User Needs Analysis for a CBRNE Command Post, Technical report prepared for Amita Inc., Ottawa

Sen, D. & Lindgaard, G. (2009). Team situation awareness as a possible framework for analyzing Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, or Explosives (CBRNE) events, Technical report prepared for Amita Inc., Ottawa.

Lindgaard, G., Bosse, A., Bowman, A., Campbell, C., Chan, G., Deschamps, C., Gilliland, A., Headland, G., Heming, J.P., Katzur, E., Ketel, J., Khalili, N., Ko, N., Krol, M., Lanktree, M., Mann, S.,Naparat, M., Stobert, E., Stojmenovic, M., Valencia, T. & Wilhelm, D, (2008), First impressions of Carleton: Room for improvement?, Technical Report to Carleton First-year experience Office, December 2008.

Lindgaard, G., Khan, S., Brown, J., Tran, M., Stojmenovic, M. Dudek, C., Game, M., Oakley, K. & Nagy, G. (2007). Usability evaluation of the IFIP web site (IFIP, TC13)

Lindgaard, G. &  Dudek, C. (2007). Crises management: Call handler interface usability report, Technical report prepared for WorldReach (restricted)

Lindgaard, G. & Nagy, G. (2007). CHIN Report, Technical usability report prepared for Heritage Canada.

Lindgaard, G. & Nagy, G. (2006), Usability testing the web- based SECURE-eBill, Technical report prepared for ModaSolutions (restricted).

Lindgaard, G., Oakley, K., Quinn, J., Zdralek, J. & Khan, S. (2006). Amita CBRN Prototype design, Technical Report and prototype prepared for Amita WorldReach (restricted).

Lindgaard, G., Oakley, K., Quinn, J., Zdralek, J. & Khan, S. (2006). Amita CBRN Prototype usability test, RCMP Training Centre, Technical Report prepared for Amita WorldReach (restricted).

Oakley, K. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). Brytech prototype usability test, Ottawa General Hospital, Technical report prepared for Brytech Technologies, Ottawa.

Khan, S. & Lindgaard, G. (2005). Evaluation of OptiDEX: Usability and usefulness issues, Technical Report, Hivva Technologies (restricted)

Khan, S. & Lindgaard, G. (2005). Results of contextual inquiry for vending machine operator employees, Technical report, Hivva Technologies (restricted)

Khan, S. & Lindgaard, G. (2005). OptiDEX Usability and Usefulness Issues, Technical report prepared for Hivva Technologies

Lindgaard, G. (2004). The use of non-speech sounds in interactive computing, Manuscript prepared for NortelNetworks.

Khan, S. & Lindgaard, G. (2004). Evaluation of Hivva’s OptiPanel Keypad Designs, Technical report prepared for Hivva Technologies

Khan, S., Rasouli, M. Parush, A. & Lindgaard, G. (2004). Requirements specification for cybercartography and the New Economy project, Technical report, Human Oriented Technology Lab (HOTLab).

Lindgaard, G., Tsuji, B. & Khan, S. (2004). Interactive TV: A review of human factors issues, Nortel Networks, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, restricted.

Lindgaard, G. & Khan, S. (2004). Heuristic evaluation of mobile payment services. Technical Report HCIGLO13800F03030223.

Lindgaard, G. & Khan, S. (2004).Vending machine operator observation and interview results, Technical report, Hivva Technologies (restricted).

Lindgaard, G. & Khan, S. (2004). Ventrex driver observation and interview results for Hivva Technology, HOTLab Technical report HCIGLSK01609S03040903.

Khan, S. & Lindgaard, G. (2004). Results of contextual inquiry for vending machine operator drivers, Technical report HCIGLSKO16909S03040903.

Khan, S. & Lindgaard, G. (2004). Evaluation of OptiPanel Keypad designs, Technical report, Hivva Technologies (restricted).

Lindgaard, G., Khan, S. & Tsuji, B. (2004). Telco-based video delivery: A review of relevant literature, HOTLab Technical report HCIGLSKBT05TVD01050527

Lindgaard, G., Khan, S. & Tsuji, B. (2004). Channel switching delays in digital TV systems, HOTLabTechnical Report HCIGLSKBT03DTV01050527

Lindgaard, G., Khan, S. & Tsuji, B. (2004). Initial call setup delays in push-to-talk over cellular (poC), HOTLab Technical Report HCIGLSKBT02POC02050527

Lindgaard, G., Khan, S. & Tsuji, B. (2004). HOTLab observations of the Telus Mike-Direct Connect (PoC) Service, HOTLab Technical Report HCIGLSKBT01POC01050527

Lindgaard, G., Khan, S. & Tsuji, B. (2004). Push-to-talk over Cellular: A review of relevant literature, HOTLab Technical Report HCIGLSKBT04POC03050527

Lindgaard, G. (2003). An heuristic evaluation of the Carleton library web site, Technical report prepared for the Carleton Library, August.

Lindgaard, G. (2003). Important lessons learned 2000-2003, Technical report prepared for Cognos Incorporated, August.

Lindgaard, G. (2003). Important lessons learned, Technical report prepared for Nortel Networks, July.

Dudek, C., Trbovich, P., Faregh, N. & Lindgaard, G. (2003). What do I need to graduate? A usability evaluation of the Carleton Univesity Undergraduate Calendar, HOTLab Technical Report 2501/I-03.

Lindgaard, G. & Dudek, C. (2001). Client interface design project, report to CCS, Carleton University, 218 pp.

Lindgaard, G. Leung, Y. & Fabre, J. (2000). On sharing resources and donating books: What are we doing wrong? Is this the bull-in-a-china-shop syndrome?, SIGCHI Bulletin,  21-23.

Lindgaard, G. (2000). Interface design and prototype evaluation of a new Hazard Perception Test: Final Report, Contract Report RC91076 (ARRB Transport Research Ltd. Vermont South, Victoria, Australia.

Lindgaard, G. & Catchpole, J (2000). Usability trial of new interface and instructions for the Hazard Perception Test, Report RC91076/3 ARRB Transport Research Ltd. Vermont South, Victoria, Australia.

Lindgaard, G. (1999). Usability evaluation of Årslev Kommune’s Web site, Report AA-0120/99, Aarslev

Lindgaard, G. (1998). JIS Operational Review 1998, Technical Report JISS-01498.V1&2

Danielsen, 0. Nielsen, J. Lindgaard, G. & Direkinck-Holmfeld, L. (1998).  Dialogue Design: Theoretical Considerations in the Manicoral (Multimedia And Network In Cooperative Research And Learning) Project, Report RE 1007, Deliverable 03.3 WP 02 & 08, European Union Commission, Bruxelles, Telematics Frame IV Research Projects

Direkinck-Holmfeld, L., Danielsen, 0., Christiansen, N., Georgsen, M., Lindgaard, G. & Nielsen, J. (1998).  Dialogue Design: Methodological Considerations in the Manicoral (Multimedia And Network In Cooperative Research And Learning) project, Report RE 1006, Deliverable 05.6, WP 03 & 05, European Union Commission, Bruxelles, Telematics Frame IV Research Projects

Lindgaard, G. (1997).  Manicoral: Initial User Requirements Specifications, Deliverable 033, WP 03, European Union Commission, Bruxelles, Telematies Frame IV Research Projects

Lindgaard, G. (1997). A Survey of Telstra’s Secure Mail System, TRL/RLR 2318.1997

Lindgaard, G. & Borup Harning, M. (1997).  Heuristic Evaluation of MERCI, Report RE 1003, Deliverable 03. 1 1, WP 03, European Union Commission, Bruxelles, Telematics Frame IV Research Projects

Lindgaard, G. & Borup Harning, M. (1997).  Heuristic Evaluation of DCV Tools for AFRICAR, Report RE 1001, Deliverable 03.13, WP 03, European Union Commission, Bruxelles, Telematics Frame IV Research Projects

Lindgaard, G. (1995). User Needs Analysis in Alkathene: Preparing for the introduction of automated manufacturing process computers, ICI Engineering, Technical Report ICI-01195. April.

Lindgaard, G. (1995). Analysing customer services for Link Telecommunications: An initial field study, Technical Report LT-0040695.II

Lindgaard, G., Havloujian, J., Chessari, J. & Bednall, E.S. (1993) The Human Factors Kit, Telstra Technical Report No.93/112

Lindgaard, G. (1992).  TRNS future CLASS services: Towards a logical access code taxonomy, Telecom Research Laboratories Report No. 8208.

Lindgaard, G. & Ferguson, J. (1992).  Value for money?: The wonderful world of versatile PABX systems, Telecom Research Laboratories Report NO. 8209.

Lindgaard, G. (1990).  DCRIS and customer services: Problems and suggested solutions, Telecom Research Laboratories Branch Paper No. 21 1.

Lindgaard, G. & Milburn, I. (1990).  Ergonomic DCRIS review, Summary and Overview, Telecom Research Laboratories Branch Paper No. CSS 202.

Lindgaard, G. & Milburn, I. (1990).  Ergonomic DCRIS review, Part 1: Psychosocial aspects of DCRIS operators' jobs, Telecom Research Laboratories Branch Paper No. CSS 203.

Milburn, I. & Lindgaard, G. (1990).  Ergonomic DCRIS review, Part 2: Selection and training of DCRIS operators, Telecom Research Laboratories Branch Paper No. 204.

Lindgaard, G. (1989).  DCRIS: An ergonomic review, Part 4: The cognitive environment of DCRIS operators, Telecom Research Laboratories Branch Paper no. 206.

Lindgaard, G. (1988).  DCRIS and some of its problems: A pilot study, Telecom Research Laboratories, Branch Paper no.  CSS0160.

Lindgaard, G. (1988).  What's on the menu - or better, what should be on the menu?: A literature review and guidelines on menu design, Telecom Research Laboratories, Branch Paper No. CSS0142.

Lindgaard, G. (1986).  Cognitive processes in interactive computing: A multi-disciplinary approach to practical and theoretical understanding, Telecom Research Laboratories, Branch Paper No. CSS0108.

Lindgaard, G., Papasava, M., & Chessari, J. (1986).  Comments on INTET, Telecom Research Laboratories, Branch Paper No. CSS0106.

Lindgaard, G., & Perry, L. (1985).  Words, words, words. What role do they play in interactive message handling?  Telecom Research Laboratories, Branch Paper No. CSS0079.

Lindgaard, G., & Perry, L. (1985).  Do words really matter?  Preferences and performance with an electronic message handling system, Part II, Telecom Australia Research Laboratories Report No. 7826.

Perry, L., & Lindgaard, G. (1985).  What's in a name?  Preferences and performance with different sets of vocabulary for message handling system, Proceedings of the I lth.  International Symposium on Human Factors in Telecommunications, Sevigne, France.

Perry, L., Lindgaard, G., & Wilshire, C. (1985).  Do words really matter?  Preferences and performance with an electronic message handling system, Part 1. Telecom Australia Research Laboratories Report No. 7825.

Lindgaard, G. (1984).  Some notes on interactive dialogue, Telecom Research Laboratories, Branch Paper No.  CSS0055.

 

Published Professional Tests

Standards Association of Australia (SAA), Test for legibility of characters on a screen. Adopted as a standard August 1988

 

Abstracts and/or papers read

2009 Lindgaard, G. The role of aesthetics and emotion in decision making, Pro Seminar, Department of Psychology, Carleton University, 26 March 2009

2009 Lindgaard, G. Decision making and aesthetics, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia, January 2009

2007 Lindgaard, G. I like it, therefore I trust it, presentation to the German IT Society, Technische Universität, Berlin, August 24

2007 Lindgaard, G. Is fast thinking always good thinking?, presented to MIT Graduates’ Group, Ottawa, April 3.

2007 Lindgaard, G., Pyper, C., Frize, M., Walker, R., Boutilier, C., Hui, B., Narasimhan, S., Folkens, J., Winogron, B., Egan, P. & Jones, C. Intelligent decision support in medicine: Back to Bayes? presented at the IFIP TC13 Seminar, Trends in HCI, March 26, Salamanca, Spain

2006 Lindgaard, G. Khan, S. & Tsuji, B. (2006) Reality Testing Mobile and Entertainment Applications, Presented at a CHI 2006 Workshop on Reality Testing: HCI Challenges in Non-Traditional Environments, Montreal, Quebec, April 2006

2006 Toms, E. & Lindgaard, G. Public libraries: partners in community e-learning, Canadian library association annual conference  & Trade show, Ottawa, June 14-17.

2006 Ferres, L. & Lindgaard, G. Users going mobile: A natural language interface approach, presented at the Wireless Industry Congress (WIC) 2006, June 11-13, Ottawa.

2006. The power of first impressions, presented to the Sage Kiwanis Club, Ottawa, 18 January.

2006. The impact of technology on physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being, Opening Keynote address, Ergonomics Society of Taiwan, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 4 March

2006 The power of first impressions, presented at the Taiwan Design Center, Taipei, Taiwan, 3 March

2006, The power of first impressions, presented at the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, 2 March

2006 The power of first impressions, presented at Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne,  17 February

2004, Khan, S. & Lindgaard, G. Adapting a user-centred approach to designing mobile  technology, Presented at OCE-CITO Innovators showcase, 24 November.

2004 Tsuji, B., Biddle, R. & Lindgaard, G. Making signs talk, Presented at OCE-CITO  

Innovators showcase, 24 November.

2004 Strategic User Needs Analysis: A method for predicting the uptake of mobile  

applications, South African CHI, Port Elizabeth, 3 March.

2003 Reflections Australia, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

2003, Aesthetic appeal versus usability: Implications for user satisfaction, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia

2003, Human Factors in the usability life cycle, Lab 3000 – Innovation in digital design, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

2003, Designing for the customer and the bottom line, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, July

2003, Human Decision Making, invited presentation, Ottawa Hospital, June

2003. Deconstructing silos: costs and benefits of HCI, invited keynote presentation, CIPS, Regina.

2002, CIPS (Canadian Information Processing Society), HCI and Software Engineering: Uncomfortable bedfellows?, Ottawa.

2002, User satisfaction. What? How? Cascon panel presentation, IBM Conference, Toronto

2002, The state of HCI research in Canada, Cascon panel presentation, IBM Conference, Toronto

Narasimhan, S. & Lindgaard, G. (2002). Strategic User Needs Analysis Based on User Roles, MICON annual Mitel Conference, August     

2001, Feature bundling in wireless technologies: Introducing Strategic User Needs Analysis (SUNA), Micon 2001  Workshop, August.

2001, Learning together in cyberworld, Innovation, Technology, Teaching Conference, Seneca College, York University, June

2001, Automating an advanced manufacturing plant: How the experts got it wrong, Materials & Manufacturing Ontario (MMO), May

2000, Designing communication services for people: Making sense between the lines, Micon 2000 Workshop, August

2000, What the user’s eye tells the user’s brain,  CITO Tech Talk, Toronto, Canada

1999, People, IT and the bottom line, FITT (Females in IT & Telecommunications) Annual Meeting, Sydney, November

1999, Increasing company profit through usability, CHISIG Industry Breakfast Series, Melbourne, September

1998, Beware of the human potholes.  Alias: If only we had known, MIS Magazine Annual Conference, "Mindshare ", Adelaide, March

1997, Usability: Does it really affect the bottom line?  Dansk Dataforening (Danish Computer Society), special address, Copenhagen, November

1997, Manicoral: Initial User Requirements Specifications, Presentation to the EU Commission 3.5 WP 3.2-5. 1, Bruxelles, Belgium

1996, Brave new cyberworld: A better place for all?  The Ron Cumming Memorial Presentation, Proc ESA '96, Ergonomics Society of Australia Conference, September

1995, The role of Human Factors Research in Telecommunications Services for Australia, Invited Presentation, Proceedings APS and Department of Psychology, Monash University Silver Jubilee Celebration, Monash University

1994, Wow - 568 smart features on your PABX: What really determines the uptake of technology?  Proceedings HFT93 International Symposium Human Factors in Telecommunications, Darmstadt, Germany, May 11-14

1993, Understanding human communication: Psychology in software design and evaluation, Invited Paper, in K.M. McConkey, H. Wilton, A.J. Barnier & A. Bannett (Eds) Australian Psychology: Selected applications and initiatives, Australian Psychological Society Publications. Appears also In Proceedings Macquarie University Seminar Psychologists get clever, or 101 ways to sell psychology to Australia, Sydney, April

1992, Smart systems for smart people: Australia's key to the IT future, Proceedings Computing the Clever Country?, Annual Australian Computing in Education Conference ACEC '92, Melbourne, July 5-8

1992, Building Human Factors into the bottom line, Proceedings Enhancing Usability in Human-Computer Interaction: Profit from usable design AIC Confence, Sydney, August

1991, Usefulness: The ecological value of usability, Proceedings OZCHI '91, 3rd.  Annual Conference of CHISIG, Sydney, November 26-29.

1991, Type Alt-A/Shift:$*ESC% to Exit Future: Technology and its impact on society, Invited Presentation, Proceedings Computing in Education Group of Victoria, July

1991, Usability evaluation in interactive computer systems, Invited Presentation, Proceedings OZTECH'91, Canberra, July

1991, Adapting your tools to fit he task: The HCI business case.  Proceedings Ergonomics Society of Australia 27th.  Annual Conference, Coolum, Queensland, 1-4 December

1991, Usability methods, Proceedings Conference A review and appraisal of ergonomic methods in Australia, LaTrobe University, October 21-23.

 

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Main Research Areas

Relationships between aesthetics, emotion, and usability

Our early investigations into aesthetics began with a series of studies in user satisfaction on the web. These showed that satisfaction is a complex construct comprising several elements including aesthetics, or visual appeal, and emotion. Since then, our research into aesthetics is continuing.  In several studies we showed that people make reliable judgments about the visual appeal of a homepage after an exposure time of only 50msec. We interpreted those results in terms of a mere exposure effect. That is, we claimed that the appeal judgments were driven by ‘what my body tells me to feel’ rather than by ‘what my brain tells me to think’, because cognition is not supposed to be able to ‘kick in’ at such brief stimulus exposure times. In an attempt, then, to relate aesthetics to perceived usability and trustworthiness, especially of websites, we argued that judgments of perceived usability and trustworthiness require more cognitive consideration than forwarding a judgment of appeal. So far, our studies support the notion that the two kinds of judgments differ qualitatively, with perceived usability and trustworthiness  being more similar to each other than to appeal judgments.

 

Aesthetics does not, of course, apply exclusively to the visual domain. In our current studies therefore, we are investigating the effects of scent and of music on cognitive performance. Using a range of different physiological measures (GSR, ECG, EEG, EMG, respiration), we are also trying to confirm the inverted U-shape of the well-known arousal/ preference distribution in these studies.

 

Recent publications:

Dudek, C. & Lindgaard, G. (2002). Measuring user satisfaction on the web: stories people tell, to appear in Proceedings Design and Emotion 2002, Loughborough, UK.

Dudek, C., Lindgaard, G. & Pineau, S. (2009). Beauty and the beast: Objective measures of the visual appeal of web pages, submitted to the International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) 2010, 17-20 July, Miami.

Hassenzahl, M., Lindgaard, G. & Tractinsky, N. (2008). The study of visual aesthetics in human computer interaction, Proceedings Dagstuhl Seminar 08292, 10-13 July, Dagstuhl, Germany, available at http://www.dagstuhl.de/en/program/calendar/semhp/?semnr=08292

Lauriault, T. &  Lindgaard, G. (2006). New and promising territory? Exploring the use of olfaction in cybercartography, Cartographica, 41(1 Spring), 73-91.

Lindgaard, G. (2007). Aesthetics, visual appeal, usability, and user satisfaction: What do the user’s eyes tell the user’s brain?, Australian journal of emerging technologies and society (AJETS), 5 (1), 1-16.

Lindgaard, G. & Dudek, C. (2003). What is this evasive beast we call user satisfaction?, Interacting with Computers, 15 (3), 429-452.

Lindgaard, G. & Dudek, C. (2002). High appeal versus high usability: Implications for user satisfaction, submitted to HF2002 Human Factors Conference, Melbourne, Australia, November 25-27.

Lindgaard, G. & Dudek, C. (2002). User satisfaction, aesthetics and usability: Beyond reductionism, to appear in Proceedings 17th. IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing) World Computer Congress, Montreal, August 25-30.

Lindgaard, G. & Dudek, C. (2001). Is a great experience merely satisfying, and does appeal equate high subjective usability? Proceedings International Conference on Affective Human Factors Design, Singapore, June 27-29.

Lindgaard, G. Dudek, C., Sen, D. Noonan, P. & Sumegi, L. (2009). If it is appealing, is it really also usable? And trustworthy as well, submitted to Transactions On CHI (TOCHI).

Lindgaard, G., Fernandes, G., Dudek, C. & Brown, J. (2006). Attention web designers: You have 50   milliseconds to make a good first impression!, Behaviour & Information Technology. 25, 115-126.

Lindgaard, G., Litwinska, J., & Dudek, C. (2008). Judging web page visual appeal: Do East and West really differ?, to appear in Proceedings International Conference on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction, IADIS 2008, Amsterdam, NL, 25-27 July.

Lindgaard, G. & Whitfield, A. (2004). Integrating aesthetics within an evolutionary and psychological framework, Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 5 (1), 73-90.

Lindgaard, G. & Whitfield, A. (2001). Usability, Aesthetics, and the User Experience: A Theoretical Proposal, Proceedings International Conference on Affective Human Factors Design, Singapore, June 27-29.

Mahlke, S. & Lindgaard, G. (2007). Emotional experience and quality perceptions of interactive products, in J. Jacko (ed), Human Computer Interaction Part 1, HCII 2007, LNCS 4550 (pp. 164-173). Springer Verlag, Berlin, 164-173.

Sen, D. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). Around the world through homepages: What attracts and persuades foreign students?, Proceedings 114th. Annual APA convention, New Orleans, LA, 10-12 August.

Sen, D. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). If information has really evolved, why do our hearts rule our heads?, Proceedings 114th. Annual APA convention, New Orleans, LA, 10-12 August.

Sen, D. & Lindgaard, G. (2008). The impact of prototypicality on aesthetic evaluation: Towards a better understanding of affective components of interface design, Proceedings International Conference on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction, IADIS 2008, Amsterdam, NL, 25-27 July.

Sen, D., Lindgaard, G. & Patrick, A. (2007). Symbolic aspects of university homepage design: What appeals to different cultures?, to appear in MMI Interaktiv – Online Journal zu Fragen der Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion (issues concerning Human Machine Interaction), July 2007, 65-71.

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Multimodality and the use of graphs in user interface design

How do you ‘read’ a graph to someone who can’t see it? Where do you start? What aspects and relationships are important to point out? Which ones, if any, can safely be ignored? Indeed, how do people perceive, comprehend, and interpret graphically presented material? These are some of the issues we are addressing in the multimedia multimodal user interface design research.

 

Recent publications:

Ferres. L., Parush, A., Li, Z., Oppacher, Y. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). Representing and querying line graphs in natural language: the iGraph system, to appear in Proceedings Smart Graphics,  2006, July 23-25, Vancouver.

Ferres. L., Verkhogliad, P. & Lindgaard,G. (2007). A dialogue interface to explore graphical representations of statistical data, Proceedings MICAI, Nov. 5.

Ferres, L. Verkhogliad, P. & Lindgaard, G. (2007). Using language as an accessibility tool: A system for natural language interaction with graphs over the web, Proceedings 20th International FLAIRS conference, May 7-9, Key West, Fl.

Ferres, L., Verkhogliad, P., Lindgaard, G., Boucher, L., Chretien, A. & Lachance, M. (2007). Improving accessibility to statistical graphs: The inspectGraph system, Proceedings ASSETS’07, 9th. International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, October 15-17, Tempe, AZ. . Nominated for best paper award.

Ferres, L.,  Verkhogliad, P.,  & Lindgaard, G. (2007). A Dialogue Interface to Explore Graphical Representations of Statistical Data, MICAI, 6th Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Aguascalientes, Mexico, Nov. 4-10.

Ferres, L., Verkhogliad, P., Sumegi, L., Boucher, L., Lachance, M., & Lindgaard, G. (2008). A syntactic analysis of accessibility to a corpus of statistical graphs. In Proceedings of the 2008 international Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility (W4a) (Beijing, China, April 21 - 22, 2008). W4A '08. ACM, New York, NY, 37-44.

Lindgaard, G., Brown, & A, Bronsther, A. (2006). Interface design challenges in virtual space, in T.R.F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory Practice, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Ch. 9.

Parush, A. Ferres, L. Rasouli, M. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). Impact of external representation and task on graph comprehension. To appear in Proceedings 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, July 26-29, Vancouver, Canada.

Trbovich, P., Lindgaard, G. & Dillon, D. (2006). The role of multimodal interfaces in spatially-based applications, in T.R.F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and Practice,    Elsevier, Amsterdam, Ch. 11.

Treen, C. (2006). An exploration of the impact of odour on preferences, unpublished honours thesis, Carleton University.

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User-Centred Design (UCD)

In this line of research we are exploring many different aspects of UCD, ranging from analysis of work places, task contexts, tasks, and methods in requirements engineering, to the design process and issues in evaluation. We are especially interested in understanding the challenges involved when designing for mobile applications and applications for novel environments and emerging technologies.

 

Recent references:

Bennett, G., Lindgaard, G., Tsuji, B., Connelly, K.H., Siek, K.A., & Khan, S. (2006). Reality testing: HCI challenges in non-traditional environments, Workshop presented at CHI’06, Montreal.

Brehaut, J., O’Connor, A. Tugwell, P., Lindgaard, G., Santesso, N., Lott, A., Saarimaki, A., Cranney, A. & Graham, I. (2005). Measuring the usability and usefulness of online patient decision aids: A demonstration of methods.

Brown, J., Biddle, R. & Lindgaard, G. (2008). Stories, sketches, and lists: Developers and interaction designers interacting through artefacts, Proceedings Agile 2008, Toronto, August 4-8.

Brown, J., Biddle, R. & Lindgaard, G. (2008)  analyzing talk-and artefact-mediated interactions from a CHAT perspective, Proceedings of the International society for cultural and activity research (ISCAR) 2008, San Diego,  9-13 September

Brown, J., Lindgaard, G. & Biddle, R. (2007). Analyzing artefact-mediated interactions, Proceedings International Society for Theoretical Psychology Conference ( ISTP 2007), Theoretical psychology beyond borders: Transdisciplianrity and internationalization, June 17-22, Toronto.

Chattratichart, J. & Lindgaard, G. (2009). Is the ‘figure of merit’ really so meritorious?, Proceedings  INTERACT’09, Stockholm, 26-28 August.

Chattratichart, J. & Lindgaard, G. (2008). A comparative evaluation of heuristic-based usability inspection methods, in Proceedings CHI’08 Extended Abstracts, 2213-2220.

Chattrichart, J. & Lindgaard, G. (2006). A new ‘figure of merit’ of the UEM effectiveness metric, submitted to International Journal of Human Computer Studies, June 2006.

Lindgaard, G. (2007). Intelligent decision support in medicine: Back to Bayes? Invited Keynote presentation, ECCE’07, Proceedings, European Conference on Cognitive Engineering, London, August 28-31.

Lindgaard, G. (2007). Medical decision making, Proceedings of CPA, Ottawa, June 7-9.

Lindgaard, G. (2005). Notions of thoroughness, efficiency, and validity: Are they valid in HCI? To appear in Proceedings 4th International Cyberspace Conference on Ergonomics, Cyberg 05, Rhodes University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Lindgaard, G. (2004). New wine in old bottles? Coming to grips with multimedia, multimodal user interfaces, to appear in Proceedings WWCS2004 (Work with Computer Systems), Kuala Lumpur, June 29-July 3.

Lindgaard, G., Dillon, R.F., Trbovich, P, White, R., Fernandes, G., Lundahl, S. & Pinnamaneni, A. (2006). User Needs Analysis and requirements engineering: Theory and practice, Interacting with Computers, 18 (1), 47-70.

Lindgaard, G. & Madore, S. (2003). The impact of interactive technology on worker efficiency: A job assessment, Proceedings 4th World Congress on the Management of Electronic Commerce, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, 15-17 January.

Lindgaard, G. &  Narasimhan, S. (2005). The robustness of feature usage patterns, to appear in Behaviour & Information Technology.

Lindgaard, G. & Narasimhan, S. (2002). The importance of User Roles in feature bundling decisions in wireless handheld devices: Strategic User Needs Analysis (SUNA), 17th. IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing) World Computer Congress, Montreal, August 25-30.

Noël, S., Dumoulin, S., Lindgaard, G. & Stewart, J. (2009). „Undisciplined squads of emotions“: How conflicting emotional cues are interpreted in virtual environments, submitted to International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, July.

Noël, S., Dumoulin, S. & Lindgaard, G. (2009). Interpreting human and avatar facial expressions in context, Proceedings INTERACT’09, Stockholm, August 2009.

Philp, K., Narasimhan, S., Gauthier, M., Khan, S., Rasouli, M., Dunn, G., Lindgaard, G. & Parush, A. (2006). Applying UCD in cyber-cartography: The emergence of user interface concepts and designs, to appear in Proceedings GeoTech Event 2005, 18-21 June, Ottawa.

Quinn, J. Carker, J., Rohlfs, S. & Lindgaard, G. (2004). Information architecture for a Government website, in Proceedings WWCS2004 (Work with Computer Systems), Kuala Lumpur, June 29-July 3.

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Human judgment and decision making

How do experts put together data from different sources to arrive at a diagnosis, a prediction, or any other type of judgment? We like to believe that our decisions are based on a careful analysis and rational weighting of multiple cues culminating in a very objective and considered decision. We also believe that the more data at our fingertips, the better, more informed our decisions will be. That perception may be true, but much of the evidence presented in the human judgment and decision making literature suggests that we are often swayed by emotion, systematic judgmental biases, primacy or recency effects. That is, the notion of ‘rational [hu]man’ may be an exaggeration or even wrong. When judges compete against decision models based on large samples of their own expert judgments, their models have been found to outperform the judges themselves, suggesting that at least some judgments may be represented by these simple linear models. Yet, expert systems have not yet taken over the world, as the founders of Artificial Intelligence believed they would some fifty years ago. So-called ‘knowledge elicitation’ tools still have a hard time pinning down what experts do, which cues they use, and we are at a loss when seeking to define ‘expertise’. So, what is it that humans do when weighing up evidence, when combining data, attending to some and ignoring other items, in their head? When is it/is it not advisable to replace or substitute human experts with decision models? When and how should humans and models work together, in parallel, or asynchronously? What are the aspects of judgments and decision processes that could fruitfully be modeled, and where do models fall down?

 

In this part of my research, my students and I aim to understand how prognostic and diagnostic decisions are made. This applied research focuses on medicine and business decisions where data that differ in level of diagnosticity are typically available from several sources.

 

Relevant publications:

Carroll Somoza, K., Momtahan, K. & Lindgaard, G. (2007). Effects of a Computerized Cardiac Teletriage Decision Support System on Nurse Performance: Results of a Controlled Human Factors Experiment Using a Mid-Fidelity Prototype, Proceedings Medinfo 2007, August 24-27,  Brisbane, Australia.

Faregh, N. & Lindgaard, G. (2003). Evaluation of a prognostic decision support system in a neonatal intensive care unit, Proceedings JDN’03, Vancouver BC, November.

Lindgaard, G. (2005). Cognitive errors in medical diagnosis: Designing a useful decision support system, to appear in Proceedings HCI International, Las Vegas, July.

Lindgaard, G. (2005). Human judgment, decision theory, and technology: Applications of Bayes’ Theorem, History and philosophy of psychology Bulletin. 17 (2), 29-39.

Lindgaard, G. (1995).  Human Performance in fault diagnosis: Can expert systems help, Interacting with Computers, 7 (3), 254-272.

Lindgaard, G., Pyper, C., Frize, M. & Walker, R. (2009). Does Bayes have it?: Decision support systems in diagnostic medicine, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 39(3), 524-532.

Lindgaard, G., Pyper, C., Frize, M., Walker, R., Boutilier, C., Hui, B., Narasimhan, S., Folkens, J., Winogron, B., Egan, P. & Jones, C. (2008). Intelligent decision support in medicine: Back to Bayes? Journal of universal computer science, 14(6), 2720-2736.

Ralph, S. Subjective probabilities in medical diagnosis, unpublished honours thesis, Carleton University.

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