Selected Events from Social Histories

Time Line

..... 4000 - 3000BC 3000 - 2000BC 2000 - 1000 BC 1000 - AD BC-AD
Egypt 4000 - 3500

Sumerian language & script in its city-state Uruk: clerks recorded wages

3200 BC Sumerian cuneiform script uses stylus and clay tablets

3400BC Egyptian hieroglypic script developed probably influenced by Sumeria

3400 - 3200 Religion: sun god Ra: Horus and Seth

3100 King Menes: N. & S. Egypt united

God Ptah: creator of world, patron of craftsmen

3000 - 2000BC

2400 Egypt concept: life after death

2200 Egypt advanced into Nubia

2040 -1786: Egyptian coffin texts and papyri contain myths, spells, rituals

2000 - 1000BC

Amun-Re a synthesis of Thebian god Amun and Heliopitan god Re

1478 - 1457BC Hathepsut. Black pharaoh; First female pharaoh;

She was powerful leader who led armies into battle; trade prospered;

1457 BC Tuthmosis III, her son became Pharaoh; great conqueror

1379 - 1362BC Black pharaoh Akhenaton & Queen Neferti

Akhenaton introduced monotheism (Aton as god of universe) and reformed religious laws

Abolished power of priesthood and worship of multiple dieties: Nut (sky); Thoth (moon); Amon-re or Amen (Sun)

Humanized pharaoh

2000-1200 BC Tutankhamen

1000BC -AD

753 - 713 BC Piankhi, Black Nubian king united lands of Kusk, Nubia and Meroe. He conquered Egypt in response to unfair taxing imposed when Egypt ruled Nubia. His kingdom stretched to Ethiopia. He (re)established trade with Assyria, India, Asia

BC - AD

300BC Erastosthenes, scholar calculated earth's circumference using Ashwan well

Other, Iraq, Iran, Pheonicians... 4000 - 3000 3000 - 2000 2000 - 1000 1000 - AD

900 BC cult of god Baal in Pheonician city;

600BC Zoroatrian monotheistic religion develops in Iran

BC - AD

391AD - 1400AD Arab scholars protect Greek scholarship from Christian destruction including Ptolemy's research

610 AD Mohammad announces He is the Seal of Prophets, founder of Islam, a monotheistic religion worshipping God Allah. He claims descendancy from Abraham, Moses and Christ with equal station.

1154 AD Al-Idrisi: Arab-(Islamic?) geographer in a Sicilian court created a world map influenced by Ptolemy

1312 - 1337AD Black Emperor Mansa Musa I of Mali, one of richest kingdoms on earth

Mali controlled Saharan trade routes

Mana Musa I converted to Islam and Mali became an Islamic nation

Timbuktu became world centre for Islamic studies

Mali population were highly literate in Arabic

1324 Mana Musa made his pilgrimmage to Mecca with 10,000 people. The gold he brought to Cairo caused a decade of inflation

1400 Mapmakers replace theology with knowledgeable reports of explorers Marco Polo, etc. Mathematical cartography

Jewish-Semites 4000 - 3000 3000 - 2000 2000 - 1200: semitic languages: Akkadians, Assyro-Babylonians, Amorites, Araniens, Pheniciens, Arabes, Hebrews, Ethiopians

1300 Moses born: gave Hebrews: Nation, Religion, Law

1250 Exodus from Egypt to Palestine

Canaanites (Semites settled in Syria

Temple built by Pheonician craftsmen on Canaanite and Phoenician model

1050 - 1000 BC Saul first King of Jews

1100 - 1050 Philistines, a trading people conquered Jews

1050 BC Israelites tribes rules by judges; assimilate Canaanite ideas

1050BC Yahweh of Moses absorbed features of Canaanite deities

1000 - AD

961 - 922BC Solomon Temple built in Jerusalem

960 - 930BC Black Queen of (Sheba), Makeba, founder of one of most important families in African history. Rulers of Ethiopia for 3000 years. Travelled to Israel to meet Solomon renowned as great leader. Married Solomon and converted to Judaism.

Her son, Ibn al-Hakim (Menelik later David) from Solomon was born in Ethiopia. Visited Solomon in Israel. Founded new rich kingdom. Ethiopians would later conquer Egypt.

950-900BC Solomon died

Israelites in north separated from Judah in south

874 - 853BC Jezebel wife of King of Israel built temple to Baal

Elijah slayed Jezebel

859-825 Black odalisque: King Jehru of Israel 800 BC; Isahiah prophecizes fall of Israel

732 Assyrians conquered Israel

BC AD
Greek 4000 - 3000 3000 - 2000 2000 - 1000

1200 Aryan gods introduced to Greece (Zeus, Apollo, Hermes)

Replaced Minoan gods

Phoenician alphabet ends dark ages in Greece

Greek Dorian period

Athens, Thebes, Sparta developed

1000 - AD

Greek alphabet advanced: includes vowels

Trading fleet in Indian Ocean

850-800BC orgiastic cult of nature: Dionysius or Bacchus from Thrace and Phrygia

470 - 399BC Socrates: Athenian Greek: never wrote, was written by Aristophanes his enemy, Xenophon and Plato

Socrates was accused of being a traitor to Athen's cause in the Peloponnese wars;

His sentence: to drink poison.

His crime: corruption of youth; impiety towards the gods

384 - 322BC. Alexander the Great's preceptor

427 - 347 BC Plato, Socrates' disciple. His principles works have become the foundation of western philosophy through Aristotle, the Fathers of the Christianity, Islamic philosophy, Medeival, the Renaissance and certain aspects of contemporary logic idealism

Aristotle: 384 - 322 BCE: Powerful philosophical system. Plato's student.

337 BCE Started the Lyceum in Athens.

Influenced theology of medieval Christians and the early years of Islamic science and philosophy;

BC AD

150 AD Ptolemy: Greek geographer, astronomer complied centuries of Greek learning in his book 'Geography'

He devloped system for organizing maps according to latitude and longtitude

He suggested scale, proportions, fractions, ratios

Romans used Greek theory of mapping for practical purposes: boundaries, roads, journeys, maps

391 AD Christians mobs sacked Alexandrian library and Ptolemy's research was lost until 1400 AD

Roman 4000 - 3000 3000 - 2000 2000 - 1000 1000 - AD ............1700.....
Sociology ... .... .... .... ....
Religion & Philosophy

Abraham: 19th century BCE. Patriarch of Jewish, Christians and Moslems. Considered by some to be origin of monotheism. From Ur to Palestine. Son Isaac (born of Sarah) became father of Jacob and Esau. Jacob sons prophecized as twelve tribes of Israel. Abraham's son Ismael (born of Agar) ancestor of arabs

4000 - 3000BC 3000 - 2000BC 2000 - 1000BC 1000 - AD BC - AD
Science & Technology 4000 - 3000 BC 3000 - 2000 BC 2000 - 1000 BC

1200s: Phoenician alphabet introduced to Greece

1000 - AD

800s Greek alphabet advanced

300BC Erastosthenes, scholar calculated earth's circumference using Ashwan well

BC - AD

150 AD Ptolemy: Greek geographer, astronomer complied centuries of Greek learning in his book 'Geography'

He devloped system for organizing maps according to latitude and longtitude

He suggested scale, proportions, fractions, ratios

Romans used Greek theory of mapping for practical purposes: boundaries, roads, journeys, maps

391 AD Christians mobs sacked Alexandrian library and Ptolemy's research was lost until 1400 AD

391AD - 1400AD Arab scholars archive and use Ptolemy's research

1154 Al-Idrisi: Arab-(Islamic?) geographer in a Sicilian court created a world map influenced by Ptolemy

1400 Mapmakers replace theology with knowledgeable reports of explorers Marco Polo, etc. Mathematical cartography

Art & Music 4000 - 3000BC 3000 - 2000BC 2000 - 1000BC 1000BC - AD

Song of Songs attr. to Solomon: psalmes

BC - AD
Literature 4000 - 3000BC 3000 - 2000BC 2000 - 1000BC 1000 BC Ballad of Trojan Wars

Homer's Odyssey & Illiad

BC - AD

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