- Rachel Carson (1962). Silent Spring marks the beginning of the modern environmental movement (Sessions, 1995).
- "The history of life on earth has been a
history of interaction between living things and their surroundings. To a large extent, the physical for and the habits of the earth’s
vegetation and its animal life have been molded by the environment. Considering the whole span of earthly time, the opposite
effect, in which life actually modifies its surroundings, has been relatively slight. Only within the moment of time represented by
the present century has one species - man -acquired significant power to alter the nature of his world…the most alarming of all
man’s assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers, and sea with dangerous and even lethal materials" (Carson, 1962).
- ... "sharing our earth with other creatures" (Carson,
- Hencke. 1985:211. "It is now being recognised that protest-caused forced culture change is itself morally bankrupt
- as a course of organizational direction. The impact of these organizations on the well-being of the Native and Newfoundland hunters, and on others who regularly use wild or domestic creatures for food, clothing, sport, transport or research, may be lessening somewhat due through a general decline in their credibility. The many victims on both sides of the seal wars, and those involved in a number of other animal-use and so-called environmentalist campaigns, are waiting to find out."
- (Hencke 1985:204) He stressed that "The Inuit hunt is humane.
- Seals are normally killed by direct head shot from a high-powered rifle. This is probably the most instaneous and least painful of any of the ways that a seal can die from human or natural causes." "The Inuit believe that a proper and respectful use of animals is essential to life. If people in the industrial cities are allowed to stop others far ways from hunting, then what is next? Will they ban fishing? Will they ban the keeping of cattle, pigs and poultry for meat, eggs and leather?" (Hencke 1985:206)
- Grotius, Hugo. (1625)
- "The extent of the ocean is in fact so great that it suffices for any possible use on the part of all peoples for drawing water, for fishing, for sailing."
- Foreman, Dave. Earth First! encourages its members in direct defense of the earth (). In the last chapter of Confessions of an
Eco-warrior, Dave Foreman sums up the accomplishments of Earth First!
- "Earth First! has led the effort to reframe the question of wilderness preservation from an aesthetic and utilitarian
one to an ecological one from a focus on scenery and recreation to a focus on biological diversity. Similarly, we
have gone beyond the limited agenda of mainstream conservation groups to protect a portion of the remaining
wilderness by calling for the reintroduction of extirpated species and the restoration of vast wilderness tracts. We
have brought the discussion of biocentric philosophy - Deep Ecology - out of dusty academic journals. We have
effectively introduced nonviolent civil disobedience into the repertoire of wildland preservation activism. We have
also helped to jolt the conservation movement out of its middle-age lethargy and re-inspire it with passion, joy, and
humor. In doing all of this, Earth First! has restructured the conservation spectrum and redefined the parameters of
debate on ecological matters" (Foreman, 1991).
- Harding, Sandra. ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Women, Science, and SocietyVolume 281, Number 5383 Issue of 11 Sep 1998, pp. 1599 - 1600
- "Consider two changes in the traditional philosophy of science to which women's movements have contributed. The first has to
do with the assumption of neutrality in the research process. Is maximizing the objectivity of research always advanced by
maximizing the social neutrality of research processes? The neutrality ideal is maximally effective when it is invoked in contexts
where social beliefs differ among members of the scientific community. But how is it useful in detecting social assumptions
shared by an entire scientific community--women and men alike--such as assumptions about women's biological inferiority? In
such cases it takes political involvement to move scientific institutions to question prevailing assumptions. Moreover, the
neutrality ideal cannot recognize or provide resources for distinguishing between social or political assumptions that tend to
obstruct the growth of knowledge and those that could advance it. We need "strong objectivity," as I have referred to it, to
detect the most foundational assumptions that shape our own belief systems.*"
- "In a related way, attention to women's concerns has helped to reveal the value of cognitive diversity in the scientific process.
Just as biodiversity is invaluable for human well-being (as well as a good in its own right), so, too, is cognitive diversity. Few any
longer question women's ability to apply the scientific method or to organize complex research projects, even if they do
sometimes approach their work in ways less favored by their male colleagues. The human intellectual repertoire consists of
many styles and many ways of organizing the production of knowledge. There exists no justifiable scientific or philosophic
reason to restrict them to the small numbers that have been favored at particular times and places. "The" scientific method can
be enhanced by our appreciation of the wealth of intellectual resources to be gained by valuing and promoting cognitive
- "Women's" issues matter to women in science and technology fields, and in society at large. I have suggested how they also
matter to the sciences as such, in ways perhaps initially unexpected. The resources that women's issues make available to the
sciences have not been fully realized. Too often women's interests in and desires for knowledge are compromised to satisfy
competing economic or political agendas. Often they are watered down or coopted and the business of science and technology
institutions continues with little change. Moreover, as long as poverty, racism, environmental destruction, and global injustices
prevail, women, as well as men, will not realize the full benefits of science and technology. We can at least hope that the gains
made in institutional practices and in the growth of knowledge during the last three decades--the result of positive interaction
between women's movements and scientific and technological institutions--will persist."
- Hencke. (1985)
- In 1984 the IFAW under Davis sent boycott postcards to 7.5 million American households. "Davis made history by generating public pressure which influenced a major legislative body...the implications of this for the future of wildlife managment was staggering. Scientific assessment of animal populations can never mean as much to the general public as repetition of the claims that the animals are taken in a cruel manner. Not only the manner of taking but the fact of taking becomes an issue easily promoted by an anti-fur protest movement." (Hencke 1985:173)
- GOVERNMENT RESPONSE TO THE STANDING COMMITTEE ON FISHERIES AND OCEANS' SEAL REPORT NOVEMBER 1999
- "The Government notes that the Department of Fisheries and Oceans is undertaking the development of a long-term strategy for the management of seal populations, as the Committee has recommended. Currently, a management policy review is under way. Along with an updated population estimate for harp seals, this review will provide the basis for public consultations on a five-year management plan for the Atlantic seal hunt which will include provinces, territories and the sealing industry, as the Committee has recommended."
- Journal of Wildlife Management Law & Policy
- Ionesco, Eugène. "It is not the answer that enlightens but the question."
- Kofinas, Gary. (1993). Subsistence Hunting in a Global Economy: Contributions of Northern Wildlife Co-Management to Community Economic Development"
- "This is not to imply that indigenous people of the north live in a time warp. The modern-day subsistence family depends on the
tools of the trade, most of which are expensive. Snowmobiles, gasoline, fishing nets, and sleeping bags are necessities. Northern subsistence households also enjoy many of the modern conveniences of life, and are saddled with the economic demands
which come with their acquisition. While furbearing species like beaver and muskrat served as important cash commodities after
"contact, " today's subsistence family generates much-needed cash as wage-labourers, part-time workers and trappers,
professional business people, traditional craftmakers, and seasonal workers. A highly-integrated interdependence between
formal and informal economi c sectors has evolved. As a result, households need to find economic opportunities which
accommodate the demands of subsistence expenses and schedules.
- "...Given the nature of northerners' dual economy, wildlife co-management arrangements also help to maintain the interdependence
of economic progress and resource stewardship in a fragile ecosystem. These links, in turn, serve as protection against
inappropriate resource uses advocated by outside interests. Establishing partnerships between government agencies and
communities helps to build mutual awareness and better work relationships for dealing with complex modern day problems.
More importantly to CED, co- management arrangements offer another venue for achieving sustainable and self-defined
approaches to progress."
- "Clearly, northern wildlife co-management arrangements are only one way for local communities to shape their economic
development. With industrialized societies' increasing demands on energy resources, the continued degradation of the world's
environment, and the globalization of economies, the pressures from the south are not likely to abate. While co-management
boards are often too busy grappling with external threats to focus pro-actively on issues at home, these new institutions do offer
some hope of finding a better sense of economic progress and northern justice."
- Shearer, Rhonda Roland and Gould, Stephen Jay (ESSAY ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Of Two Minds and One Nature"
- "In a key passage from one of the most influential books of our times (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions), T. S. Kuhn bridged
the disciplinary gap between visual representation and conceptual innovation when he used the famous gestalt illusion of the
duck-rabbit as a primary symbol for the meaning and nature of scientific revolution: "It is as elementary prototypes for these transformations of the scientist's world that the familiar demonstrations of a switch in visual gestalt prove so suggestive. What were ducks in the scientist's world before the revolution are rabbits afterwards."
- USES OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
"By enabling rapid access to and exchange of information, the World Wide Web (WWW) has the potential to revolutionize
many aspects of education (see Barrie and Presti, 1996). It is an especially appropriate resource for environmental education
because it provides convenient access to timely information on rapidly developing environmental issues at both local and global
levels, and opportunities for both instructor and students to explore their interests independently and to contribute to information
sources as well as benefit from them."
- BROOKE, JOHN ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Science and Religion: Lessons from History?
- "At their first meetings in the 1830s British Association for the Advancement of Science clear lines of demarcation were drawn between science, politics and religion. Cambridge geologist Adam Sedgwick warned that "if we
transgress our proper boundaries, go into provinces not belonging to us, and open a door of communication with the dreary
wild of politics, that instant will the foul Demon of discord find his way into our Eden of Philosophy." The sciences promised a
paradise of consensus. Politics, infused with religion, defined the serpent."