PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH
Fals Borda, Orlando
Fals-Borda, Orlando and Mohammad Anisur Rahman. Eds. 1991. Action and Knowledge: Breaking the Monopoly with Participatory Action Research. New York: APEX Press.
While granting that a range of experience allows one to begin to think beyond one’s daily life, the adult education and PAR theorists specifically describe the processes that allow the most sheltered of people to become critical thinkers through praxis (e.g Hall 1981, Fals Borda and Rahman 1991), or what Freire (1970) calls conscientization. Praxis and conscientization are processes grounded in people’s existence in the concrete world (Freire 1970) and therefore, the broader their experiences, the more resources one may have upon which to reflect and from which to learn.
Fals-Borda. 1991. "Some Basic Ingredients." In Action and Knowledge: Breaking the Monopoly with Participatory Action-Research, ed. Fals-Borda, O., M. A. Rahman, pp. 121-131. New York: The Apex Press.
Gaventa, John. 1991. "Toward a Knowledge Democracy: Viewpoints on Participatory Research in North America." In Action and Knowledge: Breaking the Monopoly with Participatory Action-Research, ed. Fals-Borda, O., M. A. Rahman, pp. 121-131. New York: The Apex Press.
Fals-Borda, Orlando"Peoples' SpaceTimes in Global Processes: The Response of the Local"
The 8th world congress on Participatory Action-Research (and 4th on Action research, action learning and process-management): Cartagena, Colombia - June 1-5, 1997
Fals-Borda acknowledges that his way of learning and organizing with PAR is based on the existential concept of experience proposed by the Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955), a renowned humanist.