Sample IEEE Documentation Style for References

References to sources should be numbered sequentially by order of mention in the text, with the number placed in brackets and printed on line (not as a super- or subscript) like [1]. The list of all references used in the text should appear in numerical order of mention at the end of the document.


[1] E. R. Tufte, Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 1996.

[2] J. H. Watt and S. A. van der Berg, Research Methods for Communication Science. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1995.

[3] M. S. MacNealy, Strategies for empirical research in writing. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1999.

Articles/Chapters in Book

[4] J. W. DuBois, S. Schuetze-Coburn, S. Cumming, and D. Paolino, "Outline of discourse transcription," in Talking Data: Transcription and Coding in Discourse Research (J. A. Edwards and M. D. Lampert, Eds.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993, pp. 45-89.

Articles in Periodicals (journals, magazines, etc.)

[5] R. C. Carter, "Search time with a color display: Analysis of distribution functions," Human Factors, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 302-304, 1982.

Papers Published in Proceedings

[6] P. Leone, D. L. Gillihan, and T. L. Rauch, "Web-based prototyping for user sessions: Medium-fidelity prototyping," in Proc. 44th Int. Technical Communications Conf. (Toronto, Canada, May 11-14, 1997, pp. 231-234).

Unpublished Papers

[7] K. Riley, "Language theory: Applications versus practice", presented at the Conf. of the Modern Language Association, Boston, MA, December 27-30, 1990.

Technical Reports

[8] K. Kraiger and M. S. Teachout, "Applications of generalizability theory to the Air Force job performance measurement project: A summary of research results," Human Resources Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, Tech. Rep. AFHRL-TR-90-92, July 1991.

Electronic sources

Give the author, title, type of medium (enclosed in brackets [ ]), volume, issue number (in parentheses ( )), page number (if given), and the year and month of publication (in parentheses ( )). Then give the full Internet address or the name of the online service provider prefaced by "Available:"

Article in an Electronic Journal

[9] D. Blankenhorn, "Newsproducts: Panasonic debuts first rewritable optical disk recorder," Newsbytes, [Online] Vol. 7, Jan. 1990. Available: Knowledge Index File: Newbytes (NEWS 1) Item: 08931265

Other online documents

[10] T. Land, "Web extension to American Psychological Association style (WEAPAS)," [Online document], 1996 Mar. 31 (Rev. 1.2.4.), [cited 1996 Sep. 14], Available:

[11] P. Curtis, "Mudding: Social phenomena in text-based virtual realities," [Online document], Aug. 1992, [1996 Aug 30], Available FTP:

[12] T. Adamowski, "Writer's resource," in IEEE PCS Online Discussion Forum, 14 Dec 1999. [Online]. Available WWW:

©2000 Natasha Artemeva, SLALS, Carleton University