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Publications | 1996 - 98

Research Publications (1996-1998)

1998

Patterson, R.T., Burbidge, S.M. and Luternaur, J.L. 1998. An atlas of common Quaternary shelf benthic foraminiferal species from off the coast of British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 503, 92 p.


Guilbault, J.-P., and Patterson, R.T. 1998 Rudoloculina hooperi N. Gen. N. Sp., A new miliolid with an agglutinated outer surface from the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 28: 306-311.


Blais-Stevens, A., and Patterson, R.T., 1998 Foraminiferal biofacies of Saanich Inlet, Vancouver Island, British Columbia: valuable environmental indicators. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 28:201-219.


Reinhardt, E.G., Patterson, R.T., Blenkinsop, J. and Raban, A., 1998 Paleoenvironmental Evolution of the Inner Basin of the Ancient Harbor at Caesarea Maritima, Israel; Foraminiferal and Sr Isotopic Evidence. Revue de Paleobiologie, 17 (1):1-21.


Reinhardt, E.G., Stanley, D., and Patterson, R.T., 1998 Strontium isotopic-paleontological method as a high-resolution paleosalinity tool for lagoonal environments. Geology, 26 (11):1003-1006.


Hutchinson, I., Patterson, R.T., Mathewes, R.W. 1998. Plant macrofossil, pollen, diatom, and foraminiferal biofacies of the Fraser delta. Geology of the Fraser River Delta. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 525: 161-175.


Reinhardt, E.G., Dalby, A., Kumar, A., and Patterson, R.T. 1998. Utility of arcellacean morphotypic variants as pollution indicators in mine tailing contaminated lakes near Cobalt, Ontario, Canada. Micropaleontology, 44: 131-148.

1997

Patterson, R.T., McKillop, W.B., Kroker, S., Nielson, E., and Reinhardt, E.G. 1997. Evidence for rapid avian-mediated foraminiferal colonization of Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, during the Holocene Hypsithermal. Paleolimnology. 18: 131-143.


Patterson, R.T., 1997. Assignment of World Wide Web Virtual Museum Projects in Undergraduate Geoscience Courses. Computers and Geosciences. 23: 581-585.


Guilbault, J.-P., Patterson, R.T , Barrie, J.V., and Conway, K.W., Thomson, R.E. 1997. Late Quaternary paleoceanographic changes in Dixon Entrance, British Columbia shelf: evidence from the foraminiferal faunal succession. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 27:151-174.


Ozarko, D.L., Patterson, R.T., and Williams, H.F.L. 1997. Marsh foraminifera from Nanaimo, British Columbia: infauanl habitat and taphonomic implications. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 27:51-68.


Cavazza, W., Blenkinsop, J., DeCelles, P.G., Patterson, R.T., and Reinhardt, E.D., 1997, Stratigrafia e sedimentologia della sequenza sedimentaria oligocenico-quaternaria del bacino calabro-ionico: Bollettino della Societa Geologica Italiana, 116:51-77.


Blais-Stevens, A., Clague, J.J., Bobrowsky, P.T., and Patterson, R.T 1997. Paleoseismic evidence in late Holocene sediments, Saanich Inlet, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 34: 1295-1420.

1996

Patterson, R.T., and Fowler, A.D., 1996, Evidence of self-organization in planktic foraminiferal evolution: implications for interconnectedness of paleoecosystems. Geology. 24:215-218.


Patterson, R.T., Barker, T., and Burbidge, S.M.,1996, Arcellaceans (Thecamoebians) as Proxies of Arsenic and Mercury Contamination in Northeastern Ontario Lakes. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 26:172-183.


Asioli, A., Medioli, F.S., and Patterson, R.T.,1996, Thecamoebians as the tool for reconstruction of paleoenvironments in some southern Alpine Lakes (Orta, Varese and Candia). Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 26:248-263


Reinhardt, E.G., Easton, N., Patterson, R.T., 1996, Foraminiferal evidence of late Holocene sea-level change on Amerindian site distribution at Montagu Harbour, British Columbia. Géographie Physique et Quaternaire. 50:35-46



1998 Abstracts

Rudoloculina hooperi N. Gen. N. Sp., A new miliolid with an agglutinated outer surface from the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

Guilbault, J.-P., and Patterson, R.T.,

Journal of Foraminiferal Research (1998) 28:306-311.


Abstract

 Rudoloculina hooperi n. gen., n. sp., a new miliolid from Holocene and modern shelf sediments of the northeastern Pacific Ocean, is characterized by chambers that are quadrate in cross-section and by a test wall with embedded agglutinated grains, some of which consist of miliolid-type shell material (subparallel calcite laths). The agglutinated grains are either calcareous and low in magnesium (Mg/Ca less than or equal to 0.01) or silicic. Rudoloculina hooperi has previously been mistakenly reported from the same region as Quinqueloculina agglutinata Cushman. The morphologically similar genus Cycloforina has been reported mostly from warmer waters, suggesting that R. hooperi is near the northern limit of its range in the Gulf of Alaska.


An atlas of common Quaternary shelf benthic foraminiferal species from off the coast of British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 503, 92 p.

Patterson, R.T., Burbidge, S.M. and Luternaur, J.L.

Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 503 (1998) 92 p.
 


Abstract

 Taxonomic notes and scanning electron micrograph illustrations have been provided for 103 species of the more abundant and ecologically diagnostic benthic foraminifera commonly found in the coastal waters off British Columbia - marsh species have been treated elsewhere and are not included herein. This monograph, the first major systematic treatment of foraminifera in the area, will ease identification problems for future paleoceanographically and biostratigraphically oriented foraminiferal workers.


Foraminiferal biofacies of Saanich Inlet, Vancouver Island, British Columbia: valuable environmental indicators.

Blais-Stevens, A., and R.T. Patterson,

Journal of Foraminiferal Research (1998) 28:201-219.
 


Abstract

 Foraminiferal biofacies identified in Saanich Inlet appear to be closely linked to a variety of environmental parameters, including water quality. Five biofaceis are defined based on Q-mode cluster analysis and on faunal distribution profiles of foraminiferal-bearing surface sediment samples. Biofacies 1 (Eggerella advena Biofacies), which occurs in near shore environments near two basys with densely populated shorelines, appears to have an affinity for areas contaminated by sewage outfall and septic system drainage. Biofacies 2 (Eggerella advena-Spiroplectammina biformis Biofacies) and 3 ( Miliammina fusca Biofacies) characterizes shallow, brackish water, and are distributed in shallow bays adjacent to Biofacies 1. Biofacies 4 (Lobatula fletcheri Biofacies), the only biofacies dominated by a calcareous fauna, has been subdivided into two sub-biofacies: Sub-biofacies 4A occurs in deep water, low oxygen environments, whereas Sub-biofacies 4B characterizes shallow water, normal marine environments. The patchy distribution of sub-biofacies 4B sampes is probably due to vagaries of water circulation in the restricted basins. Biopfacies 5 ( Leptyohalysis catella - Spiroplectammin biformis Biofacies) occupies a relatively deeper muddy environemnt with a high proportion plan debris and probably relatively lower owygen levels. Hence, the main environemtnal control defining the biofacies is water circulation (or lack therof), which is influences by the shape of the fiord (presence of the sill).


Strontium isotopic-paleontological method as a high-resolution paleosalinity tool for lagoonal environments.

Reinhardt, E.G., Stanley, D., and Patterson, R.T.,

Geology (1998) 26:1003-1006.
 


Abstract

 A combined strontium isotopic (87Sr/86Sr) - paleontological method is newly applied to a modern lagoon in Egypt's Nile delta to test its applicability as a paleosalinity proxy. Analyses of 22 surficial samples collected throughout the lagoon include 81 Sr isotopic analyses of molluscs, foraminifera, ostracods, barnacles, bryozoans, serpulid worm tubes, pore water and gypsum crystals. Two distinct salinity groups are distinguished in each sample: a lower salinity group (~1 ppt) mixed with a higher salinity group (~ 3-10 ppt) that, respectively, are interpreted as the modern biocoenosis and an older relict fauna. The relict fauna denotes higher salinity conditions in the lagoon prior to closure of the Aswan High Dam (1964), while the modern fauna records freshening of the lagoon. Recent decreased salinity is a response to regulated River Nile flow and increased discharge into Manzala of fresh water via canals and drains. Quantification of this short-term salinity change holds promise for study of modern lagoons in other world settings, and may provide paleoclimatic information for older lagoon sequences in the Nile delta and the geologic record.


Paleoenvironmental Evolution of the Inner Basin of the Ancient Harbor at Caesarea Maritima, Israel; Foraminiferal and Sr Isotopic Evidence.

Reinhardt, E.G., Patterson, R.T., Blenkinsop, J. and Raban, A.

Revue de Paleobiologie (1998) 17:1-21.
 


Abstract

 Archaeological excavations within the inner harbor at Caesarea Maritima, Israel have been conducted to understand the history of the ancient harbor built by Herod the Great at the end of the 1st c. BC. An integrated foraminiferal and strontium isotope analysis (87Sr/86Sr) of three stratigraphic sections (Areas, I9, I14, TN1) from the inner harbor has greatly enhanced the archaeological interpretation. The foraminiferal analysis of forty-two sediment samples and forty-two 87Sr/86Sr measurements of six fossil taxa have indicated temporal paleosalinities that can be related to the form and function of the inner harbor. The recognition of three predominantly salinity controlled biofacies was based on the diversity and distribution of hyaline, agglutinated, and porcelaneous foraminiferal taxa.

Areas I9 and I14 in the inner harbor were situated in a restricted but relatively well circulated brackish water environment in at least the 1st c. AD and probably up to the 3rd c. AD, with periods of higher salinity. A highly restricted lagoon was created, probably by the formation of a sand bar, sometime during the 3rd c. AD. The lagoon remained restricted and brackish and began to shoal by the 5th c. AD. Continued infilling of the brackish water lagoon with sand overwash deposits continued into at least the 7th c. AD.

Area TN1, which was further seaward in the inner harbor was a quiet restricted brackish water environment in the 6th -7th c. AD and may have been the center of harbor activity during this time. The restriction of this area was likely due to a renovation in the form of a seawall or a sandbar. The area was deliberately infilled with rubble, probably in the 7th c. AD, to prevent seaborn naval invasions.

This paleoenvironmental study using an integrated micropaleontological/strontium isotope approach emphasizes the potential of the methodology for the study of salinity changes in coastal lagoon environments.


Utility of arcellacean morphotypic variants as pollution indicators in mine tailing contaminated lakes near Cobalt, Ontario, Canada.

Reinhardt, E.G., Dalby, A., Kumar, A., and Patterson, R.T.

Micropaleontology. (1998) 44: 1-18


Abstract

 Six assemblages resulting from Q-mode cluster analysis of 27 arcellacean taxa in thirty-nine sediment-water interface samples collected from two small lakes heavily polluted by mine tailings near the town of Cobalt, northeastern Ontario, Canada, correlated well with various distinct polluted and remediated environments. Results of R-mode cluster analysis indicated that arcellacean morphs within the same species often discriminate among environments, thus utilization of infraspecific categories increases resolution when studying lake microenvironments, pollutants, and rates of lake remediation. Results of this study suggest that successful lake remediation in these and similarly polluted lakes is best achieved by leaving the tailings undisturbed to be buried naturally, or to speed the process by addition of an allochthonous sediment cap.


Plant macrofossil, pollen, diatom, and foraminiferal biofacies of the Fraser delta. Geology of the Fraser River Delta. 592:

Hutchinson, I., Patterson, R.T., Mathewes, R.W.

Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin. (1998) 525: 161-175.


Abstract

 Small-scale variations in relief across the 1000 km2 Fraser River delta platform and associated variations in tidal submergence, water-table depth, substrate salinity, sediment accumulations rate and sediment mobility support a diverse array of marine and terrestrial ecological communities. This mosaic of wet meadows and shrubland, bogs and riparian woodlands above the high tide mark, and marshes, sandflats and mudflats in the intertidal zone (often greatly modified by agricultural activity and urban development) can be linked by a successional model that relates the nature of the ecological community to the elevations of the deltaic platform and the character of the substrate. Palaeoecological investigations of plant microfossil, pollen, diatom and foraminiferal biofacies have proven useful in: 1) reconstructing the late glacial and early Holocene oceanic conditions in the Strait of Georgia; 2) reconstructing small-scale eustatic and coseismically generated relative sea-level changes; 3) assessing flooding frequency in interdisciplinary areas; and 4) developing models to explain autogenic changes associated with fire occurrence in raised bogs, which may lead to improved bog conservation measures.


1997 Abstracts

Evidence for rapid avian-mediated foraminiferal colonization of Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, during the Holocene Hypsithermal.

Patterson, R.T., McKillop, W.B., Kroker, S., Nielson, E., and Reinhardt, E.G.

Paleolimnology. (1997) 18: 131-143.


Abstract

 A Holocene ecological succession was documented using palynological, foraminiferal, and molluscan faunas sampled from an excavated trench on the margin of Bell River Bay, Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba. The palynological data record the known gradually isostatically-induced shift from aquatic to terrestrial conditions at the site, and clearly delineates the Holocene Hypsithermal maximal warm interval (commencing here about 5500 years BP). Concurrent with this warming the site became occupied by the extinct salt tolerant gastropod Marstonia gelida and the marine foraminifer Cribroelphidium gunteri by at least 5430 years BP. Water fowl-assisted colonization of non-marine habitats by foraminifera has previously been suggested as a dispersal mechanism for other non-marine foraminiferal occurrences. However, as this relatively warm-water foraminifer (presently found as far north as Cape Cod, MA on the Atlantic USA coast, and Vancouver, BC on the Canadian Pacific coast but also found in Canadian Maritime provinces during the Hypsithermal) did not inhabit the area either prior to or following the Hypsithermal warm interval, this occurrence indicates the efficiency with which foraminifera can utilize non-selective avian transport to colonize new non-marine and marine habitats. It may be that only a few years were required for colonization of the site to occur (2000-3000 km distant from native populations); this suggests that avian transport is a much more important foraminiferal dispersal mechanism than previously realized. The appearance of foraminifera at this site may also constrain models designed to determine the time required for hydraulically injected glacial freshwater to be flushed from normally brine producing aquifers in the region.


Marsh foraminifera from Nanaimo, British Columbia: infauanl habitat and taphonomic implications

Ozarko, D.L., Patterson, R.T., and Williams, H.F.L.

Journal of Foraminiferal Research. (1997) 27:51-68.


Abstract

Marsh foraminiferal faunas from nine cores in two transects in and around Nanaimo inlet were examined to assess the implications of infaunal habitat and taphonomic processes for biofacies formation. High marsh faunas live slightly deeper infaunally compared to those in the low marsh, reflecting harsher conditions in the high marsh. Most living Jadammina macrescens occur from 0-20 cm in the high marsh and from 0-11 cm in the low marsh; the main depth preference is from 2-8 cm. Most living Trochammina inflata occur between 0-25 cm in the high marsh and from 0-20 cm in the low marsh. Haplophragmoides wilberti is most abundant overall between 3-7 cm, being almost absent at the surface in all cores. H. wilberti is found primarily between 0-15 cm in the high marsh, and from 0-12 cm in the low marsh. Most living Miliammina fusca occur from 0-10 cm, with maximum abundance in the top 3 cm.

Five cluster analyses of the foraminiferal data using a sample base of 0-1, 0-3, 0-5, 0-7 and 0-10 cm, respectively, discriminated five biofacies in each case which were then used to determine which near-surface aliquot is most analogous to deeper subsurface biofacies. Results show near-surface sediment sampling should be done through the 0-10 cm interval. This aliquot allows the main infaunal species characteristics to be observed, yet is thin enough that epifaunal species are also accurately represented.

These results indicate that at least in coastal British Columbia traditional sampling strategies that assess modern marsh foraminiferal occurrence based only on examination of the uppermost 0-1 cm will not give an accurate representation of actual marsh species distribution. Modern marsh foraminiferal distribution assessment based on the thicker surface aliquot that we propose will permit researchers to delineate both subtle and dramatic sea level changes more precisely. This precision is critical in studies designed to differentiate the magnitude of seismic events and also to recognize subtle eustatic events as well.


Assignment of World Wide Web Virtual Museum Projects in Undergraduate Geoscience Courses.

R.T. Patterson,

Computers and Geosciences (1997). 23: 581-585.


Abstract

 Internet World Wide Web virtual museum projects are viable alternatives to the traditional term paper in undergraduate geoscience courses. Hyper Text Markup Language is so easy to use that students are not overly distracted from adequately researching their topic, and are thus able to gather sufficient background data. In fact, the intelligent and creative integration of text and accompanying digital artifacts requires a level of understanding of the material that is not often achieved during the writing of traditional term papers. Most significantly, the students are motivated to create high-calibre documents by the knowledge that their projects will be exposed to a global audience.


Stratigrafia e sedimentologia della sequenza sedimentaria oligocenico-quaternaria del bacino calabro-ionico (Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Oligocent-Quaternary sedimentary sequence of the Calabrian-Ionian Basin)

Cavazza, W., Blenkinsop, J., DeCelles, P.G., Patterson, R.T., and Reinhardt, E.D.

Bollettino della Societa Geologica Italiana (1997) 116:51-77


Abstract

The substantial Quaternary uplift of the Calabrian peninsula (southern Italy) has extensively exposed a thick sedimentary sequence of Oligocene to Quaternary age. This sequence covers nonconformably the crystalline basement complex of the Calabrian microplate and represents the proximal portion of the fill of the Calabrina forarc basin, still active between the Ionian subduction zone to the southeast and the calcalkaline Aeolian volcanic arc to the northwest.

Analysis of sedimentological facies and paleocurrents as well as the petrological study of sandsones and conglomerates indicate that the terrigenous detritus contained in the clastic units of the basin-fill sequence was derived either directly from the erosion of the nearby crysalline basement or - for the younger units of the basin fill - from the partial cannibalization of the older sedimentary units. The only exceptions are the varicolored clays, derived from the Ionian accretionary prism.


Late Quaternary paleoceanographic changes in Dixon Entrance, British Columbia shelf: evidence from the foraminiferal faunal succession.

Guilbault, J.-P., Patterson, R.T , Barrie, J.V., Conway, K.W., and Thomson, R.E.

Journal of Foraminiferal Research. (1997) 27:151-174.


Abstract

Late glacial and Holocene foraminiferal stratigraphy of 7 piston cores from Dixon Entrance on the Pacific coast of Canada yielded 11 biofacies defined in part by cluster analysis and in part by the percentage of temperate species. Temperate species are defined as those that are not reported north of the southern Bering Sea. It is possible to define three phases in the deglaciation based on the percentage of temperate species: the glacial phase with 0 to 5% temperate species, the transitional phase with 5 to 20% and the temperate phase, with more than 20%. Epistominella vitrea and Cassidulina reniforme- dominated assemblages characterize the oldest, "glacial" deposits (14,000-12,900 BP). Younger sediments have substrate-influenced assemblages. Muddy "transitional" deposits (12,900-10,500 BP) are dominated by the same species as the glacial material, but the coarser sediments are dominated by the attached form Lobatula fletcheri. The most abundant species in muddy "temperate" deposits (<10,500 BP) are either Epistominella pacifica or Nonionella stella. Coarse sediments of the same age contain mostly L. fletcheri, but also temperate species of the genus Islandiella. Compared to Queen Charlotte Sound further south, Dixon Entrance enjoyed generally more open marine conditions thanks in part to the greater depth that facilitated upwelling of warmer and more saline deep Californian Undercurrent waters.


Paleoseismic evidence in late Holocene sediments, Saanich Inlet, British Columbia.

Blais-Stevens, A., Clague, J.J., Bobrowsky, P.T., and Patterson, R.T

Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences (1997) 34: 1295-1420.


Abstract

 Eight piston cores of sediment spanning the last 1500 years were collected from Saanich Inlet, an anoxic fiord on southern Vancouver Island, to obtain information on sedimentation and prehistoric earthquake activity. The cores consist mainly of fine-grained varved sediments, but include massive layers deposited by subaqueous debris flows. The debris flows may have been triggered by earthquakes or by the buildup of fine sediment on the walls of the inlet. Cesium-137 and 210Pb data, 14C ages, and varve counts were used to date and correlate massive layers in the eight cores. The uppermost massive layer in two cores may record a magnitude 7.2 earthquake which occurred in 1946 near Comox, British Columbia, 200 km north-northwest of Saanich Inlet. Seven older layers are found in two of more cores and are about 200, 440, 550, 800-850, 1050-1100, 1100-1150, and 1450-1500 years old. Two of these older layers may correlate with previously documented earthquakes in the region. There is an average of one massive layer per 116 varves in the core with the greatest number of such layers, which is broadly consistent with the expected periodicity of moderate to large earthquakes in the region -- on average, one earthquake producing local Modified Mercalli Intensity VII or VIII per century. Saanich Inlet may contain a proxy record of all moderate and large earthquakes that have affected southwestern British Columbia during Holocene time, but some of the massive layers undoubtedly are nonseismically generated deposits because many do not appear to correlate from one core to then next.




1996 Abstracts

Evidence of self-organization in planktic foraminiferal evolution: implications for interconnectedness of paleoecosystems.

Patterson, R.T., and Fowler, A.D.

Geology. (1996) 24:215-218.


Abstract

 We analyzed planktic foraminiferal evolutionary data using techniques of nonlinear dynamics, a methodology new to paleontology. The data set comprises 196 extinction and speciation horizons derived from biostratigraphic ranges of 662 reliably defined species. Both extinction and speciation data sets are well characterized by power-law models. However, return maps and a predictor technique indicate that the extinction data are more highly deterministic than speciation data. We interpret the analysis, particularly extinction data, to be consistent with planktic foraminiferal evolution being organized, and not randomly driven. Our results preclude neither periodic large extinction events driven by external forces as predetermined by another system (e.g., large-body impact); nor internally driven extinction processes where spontaneously derived interdependencies cascade through the ecosystem; or some combination thereof. Our data support a model whereby the internal organization of an ecosystem regulates the response to changes in a deterministic manner, the relative scales of disturbances and extinctions depending on the degree of interdependency within the system. Thus any contention that species interactions are not sufficiently intense to generate mass extinctions can be dismissed. Random walks generated by genetic drift and the transitory nature of n-dimensional niche space may explain why speciation is less deterministic than extinction.


Arcellaceans (Thecamoebians) as Proxies of Arsenic and Mercury Contamination in Northeastern Ontario Lakes.

R.T. Patterson,T. Barker, and S.M. Burbidge

Journal of Foraminiferal Research (1996) 26:172-183.
 


Abstract

 Q-mode cluster analysis of arcellacean populations in three small lakes (two heavily polluted by mine tailings) near the town of Cobalt in northeastern Ontario permitted five distinct faunal assemblages to be recognized and related to ecologic tolerance. Mine waste and mill tailings were dumped into Crosswise Lake until 1970, and a leaking tailings dam continues to pollute Peterson Lake. Natural sedimentation is slowly burying the tailings in these lakes but areas of highly toxic sediments remain exposed in several areas. Levels of arsenic and mercury contamination in the substrate are as high as 7110 ppm and 2.54 ppm, respectively, in Crosswise Lake; and 8330 ppm and 0.77 ppm, respectively, in Peterson Lake (maximum acceptable concentrations for aquatic life are 50 ppm and 0.100 ppm, respectively). A Contaminated Substrate Assemblage (1), dominated by Centropyxis aculeata (x=27.5%), Centropyxis constricta (x=13.5%), and Arcella vulgaris (x=9.7%), characterizes the most heavily polluted parts of the lakes. Centropyxids, known to be opportunistic and capable of withstanding hostile conditions, become less dominant in biofacies found in substrates characterized by progressively less mine tailing contamination (Mine Tailings Assemblage [2], Muddy Substrate Assemblage [3], and Diatom Mud Assemblage [4]).

Unpolluted Gillies Lake was not comparable with Crosswise or Peterson lakes as a pronounced thermocline results in significantly different limnological conditions (i.e., very low bottom temperatures and oxygen concentrations) in that lake. The presence of a Cucurbitella tricuspis (x=90.3%) dominated fauna (Transported Fauna Assemblage [5]) in most Gillies Lake samples is enigmatic as no significant populations of Spirogyra spp., the algae with which the partially planktic Cucurbitella tricuspis has a symbiotic relationship, have been observed. We suspect that Assemblage 5 is allochthonous.

The results of this pilot study indicate that arcellaceans are useful not only to monitor environmental pollutants but to assess rates of lake remediation.


Thecamoebians as the tool for reconstruction of paleoenvironments in some southern Alpine Lakes (Orta, Varese and Candia).

A. Asioli, F.S. Medioli, and R.T. Patterson,

Journal of Foraminiferal Research (1996) 26:248-263


Abstract

 A study of Thecamoebians was carried out on three sediment cores collected in three Northern Italian lakes (Orta, Varese, Candia). The recognition of distinct morphotypical populations ("morphs ") within three species of thecamoebians in varying paleolomnological settings has resulted in a refined understanding of the environmental parameters controlling their distribution. For example: D. proteiformis morph "proteiformis" is well adapted to environments rich in organic matter and sulphides while D. proteiformis morph "rapa" tolerates polluted and acidified waters (presence of: copper sulfates, ammonium sulfates, high content of ammonium and nitrite nitrogen, and water with pH values between 3.9 and 4.5).

Although most questions about the ecology of thecamoebians are still unresolved, this study strongly suggests that with further research these Protozoa can be used as a valuable tool for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and detection of environmental deterioration.


Foraminiferal evidence of late Holocene sea-level change on Amerindian site distribution at Montagu Harbour, British Columbia.

E.G. Reinhardt, N. Easton, R.T. Patterson

Geographie Physique et Quaternaire. (1996) 50:35-46


Abstract

 Foraminiferal and sedimentological analysis of an underwater stratigraphic section from an Amerindian habitation site at Montague Harbour, British Columbia has further documented late Holocene sea level changes. It appears that part of the documented transgression was caused by tectonic subsidence of the area (Event 1 at approx. 3500 calendar years BP and Event 2 sometime before 1100 calendar years BP) and was recognized in the stratigraphic record by rapid environmental changes. The environmental changes caused by rapid shifts in water depth were recognized through sedimentological and foraminiferal evidence. The tectonic subsidence events, coupled with gentle late Holocene transgression, caused the breaching of Montague Harbour's northwestern channel. The breaching of the channel improved water circulation and increased salinity within the harbour. The salinity changes are reflected in the shift from a low salinity Cribroelphidium excavatum (Terquem, 1876) phenotype "clavata" dominated biofacies (1) at the base of the section to a higher salinity Buccella tenerrima (Bandy, 1950) and Elphidiella hannai (Cushman and Grant, 1927) dominated biofacies (2) at the top. These sea-level changes would have eventually forced local Amerindian settlements inland. The 14C dating of wood and shell, indicates that the recovery of archaeological remains of the Charles culture (ca.6500-3200 years BP) requires investigation in deeper waters.
 

 

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Copyright T. Patterson 1996-2014
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Updated: April 16, 2014