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Publications | 1999 - 2001

Research Publications (1999 - 2001)

2001

Boudreau, R.E.A., Patterson, R.T., McKillop, W.B., and Dalby, A.D. 2001, Non-Marine occurrence of the foraminifer Cribroelphidium gunteri in Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 32, p. 108-119.

Abstract

pdf

Prokoph, A, Fowler, A.D., and Patterson, R.T. 2001 Periodically forced self-organization in the long term evolution of planktic foraminifera. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 38: 299-314.

Abstract

pdf

Patterson, R.T. , Wright, C., Chang, A.S., Taylor, L.A., Lyons, P.D., Dallimore, A., and Kumar, A. 2001. Atlas of common squamatological (fish scale) material in coastal British Columbia, and an assessment of the utility of various scale types in paleofisheries reconstruction. Palaeontologia Electronica v. 4, no 2, 88 pp.

Abstract

pdf

 

2000

Guilbault, J.-P., and Patterson, R.T. 2000, Correlation between marsh foraminiferal distribution and elevation in coastal British Columbia, Canada, Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Agglutinated Foraminifera" edited by Malcolm Hart, Mike Kaminski and Chris Smart, p. 117-125.

Patterson, R.T. , Guilbault, J.-P., and Thomson, R.E. 2000 Oxygen Level Control on Foraminiferal Assemblage Distribution in Effingham Inlet, Vancouver Island, British Columbia Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 30: 321-335.


Patterson, R.T. , Guilbault, J.-P., Hutchinson, I., Clague, J.J. 2000 A comparison of the vertical zonation of diatom, foraminifera, and macrophyte assemblages in a coastal marsh: implications for greater paleo-sea level resoluton. Micropaleontology, 46: 299-244.


Patterson, R.T. and Kumar, A., 2000 Assessment of arcellacea (thecamoebian) assemblages, species and strains as contaminant indicators in variably contaminated James Lake, north Eastern Ontario. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 30: 310-320


Patterson, R.T. and Kumar, A. 2000 Use of arcellacea to gauge levels of pollution and remediation of industrially polluted lakes, in Martin, R.E. (ed) Environmental Micropaleontology, v. 15 of Topics in Geobiology, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publication, p. 257-278.


Patterson, R.T. 2000. The Secret to a Long Life. Non-Refereed Commentary. Palaeontologia Electronica, 3.2: 4 p.


Prokoph, A, Fowler, A.D., and Patterson, R.T., 2000 Evidence for periodicity and nonlinearity in a high-resolution fossil record of long-term evolution. Geology, v. 28, p. 867-870.


Reinhardt, E.G., Cavazza, W., Patterson, R.T., and Blenkinsop, J. 2000, Differential diagenesis of sedimentary components and the implications for strontium isotope analysis of carbonate rocks. Chemical Geology, 164: 331-343.


Dalby, A.P., Kumar, A., Moore, J.M. and Patterson, R.T. 2000, Utility of arcellaceans (thecamoebians) as paleolimnological indicators in tropical settings: Lake Sentani, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 30: 135-142.


Kumar, A., and Patterson, R.T. 2000 Arcellaceans (Thecamoebians): new tools for monitoring long and short term changes in lake bottom acidity. Environmental Geology, v. 39, p. 689-697.

pdf


Lyons, P.D., Patterson, R.T. , and Rioux, M., 2000. Application of a Three-Dimensional Color Laser Scanner to Paleontology: An Interactive Model of a Juvenile Tylosaurus sp. Basisphenoid-Basioccipital. Palaeontologia Electronica, 3.2: 16 p.

1999

Reinhardt, E.G., Blenkinsop, J. and Patterson, R.T., 1999. Assessment of a Sr Isotope (87Sr/86Sr) Vital Effect in Marine Taxa from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: Geo-Marine Letters, 18(3):241-246.


Patterson, R.T., Guilbault J.-P.,Clague, J.J. 1999. Taphonomy of tidal marsh foraminifera: implications of surface sample thickness for high-resolution sea-level studies. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 149:199-211


Dix, G.R., Patterson, R.T., and Park, L.E. 1999. Marine saline ponds as sedimentary archives of sea level and climate variation in the Late Holocene: an example along a carbonate platform margin, Bahamas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 150:223-246.

Clague, J.J., Hutchinson, I., Mathewes, R.W., and Patterson, R.T. 1999. Evidence for late Holocene tsunamis at Catala Lake, British Columbia. Journal of Coastal Research, 15:45-60


Reinhardt, E.G., and Patterson, R.T. 1999. Foraminiferal Analysis of Three Stratigraphic Sections from the Inner Harbnor at Caesarea, In Caesarea Papers II, K. Holum, A. Raban, and J. Patricj (eds.) Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplemetary Series, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.


Martin, R.E., Goldstein, S.T., and Patterson, R.T. 1999. Taphonomy as an environmental science. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 149:vii-viii.


Martin, R., Patterson, R.T., Goldstein, S., and Kumar, A. (eds) 1999. Special Issue: Taphonomy as a Tool in Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction and Environmental Assessment Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology Volume 149, Issues 1-4.


2001 Abstracts

Non-Marine occurrence of the foraminifer Cribroelphidium gunteri in Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba

Boudreau, R.E.A., Patterson, R.T.

Journal of Foraminiferal Research, (2001) v. 32, p. 108-119

Abstract

Analysis of sediment samples from the sediment-water interface of Point River Bay, northern lake Winnipegosis, a very large lake in central Manitoba, indicates that Cribroelphidium gunteri, a coastal marine foraminifer, is living and has adapted to this northern lake environment in salinities as low as 1-2%. In Point River Bay, summer water temperatures reach 15.6°C, marginally above the minimum 14.5°C required for reproduction by C. gunteri. This benthic foraminifer colonized saline parts of the lake during the warm Holocene Hypsitherml (6000-3500 years BP), probably by avian transport. Previous analysis of stratigraphic data suggested that C. gunteri had died out in this area as conditions became cooler. This hypothesis has been corroborated by the post-Hypsithermal retreat of the marine range of C. gunteri from the Maritimes of Atlantic Canada to the south of Cape Cod, MA. Although recent colonization of the lake cannot be precluded, marine source populations of C. gunteri are now quite distant, making the only viable colonization mode, avian transport, very difficult. The adaptation of the mid-Holocene population of this species to the progressively colder post Hypsithermal climate and often to extremely low salinity values in Lake Winniegosis is remarkable. The great bundance of C. gunteri in sediments of Lake Winnipegosis, in some areas making up most of the sediment, also raises potential concerns about the interpretation of supposed marine sections based exclusively on th presence of foraminifera.


Periodically forced self-organization in the long term evolution of planktic foraminifera.

Prokoph, A, Fowler, A.D., and Patterson, R.T.

Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, (2001) v. 38, p. 299-314.

Abstract

Wavelet transform and other signal analysis techniques suggest that the planktic foraminiferal (PF) long-term evolutionary record of the last 127 Ma can be attributed to complex periodic and nonlinear patterns. Correlation of the PF extinction pattern with other geological series favors an origin of the ~30 Ma periodicity and self-organization by quasi-periodic mantle-plume cycles that in turn drive episodic volcanism, CO2-degassing, oceanic anoxic conditions, and sea-level fluctuations. Stationary ~30 Ma periodicity and a weak secular trend of ~100 Ma period are evident in the PF record, even without consideration of the mass extinction at the K-T boundary. The 27-32 Ma periodicity in the impact crater record and lows in the global sea-level curve, respectively, are ~6.5 Ma and ~2.3 Ma out of phase with PF-extinction data, although major PF-extinction events correspond to the bolide impacts at the K-T boundary and in late Eocene. Another six extinction events correspond to abrupt global sea-level falls between the late Albian and early Oligocene. Self-organization in the PF record is characterized by increased radiation rates after major extinction events and a steady number of baseline species. Our computer model of long-term PF evolution replicates this SO pattern. The model consists of output from the logistic map, which is forced at 30 Ma and 100 Ma frequencies. The model has significant correlations with the relative PF-extinction data. In particular, it replicates singularities, such as the K-T event, nonstationary 2.5-10 Ma periodicities, and phase shifts in the ~30 Ma periodicity of the PF record.


Atlas of common squamatological (fish scale) material in coastal British Columbia, and an assessment of the utility of various scale types in paleofisheries reconstruction.

Patterson, R.T., Wright, C., Chang, A.S., Taylor, L.A., Lyons, P.D., Dallimore, A., and Kumar, A.

Palaeontologia Electronica (2001) v. 4, no 2, 88 pp.

Abstract

Squamatological (fish scale) material from 48 common species found in coastal waters of British Columbia is presented. Fish-scale remains of extant species are well-preserved in Holocene core sediments in various anoxic basins along the coast of British Columbia. These remains are of considerable value in assessing natural variation in fish populations over time. Comparative micrographs of modern fish scales as well as an assessment of their preservation potential is provided. Photographs of various scales preserved in the sedimentary record (e.g., herring, rockfish, sardines, surfperch) are provided and discussed in the context of the taphonomic alteration that typically occurs after burial. This monograph, the first atlas of fish-scale material available for the northeast Pacific—will help resolve identification problems for future fish taxonomists, paleoceanographers, and fisheries-oriented researchers.


2000 Abstracts

Correlation between marsh foraminiferal distribution and elevation in coastal British Columbia, Canada

Guilbault, J.-P., and Patterson, R.T.

Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Agglutinated Foraminifera, (2000) edited by Malcolm Hart, Mike Kaminski and Chris Smart, p. 117-125.

Abstract

Distribution of marsh foraminifera at two sites 120 km apart on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia show a marked linear correlation with elevation. In particular, strong correlations are shown by Miliammina fusca (-0.94) and by the grouping of Balticammina pseudomacrescens, Jadammina macrescens and Trochamminita salsa (0.92). Highest correlation values are found in samples that include at least the top 2 to 3 cm--and particularly up to 10 cm--of surface sediment. Foraminifera from samples limited to the top centimeter correlate less well as the effect of infaunal habitat, taphonomic effects, and short term environmental variations have not been smoothed out.

 


A comparison of the vertical zonation of diatom, foraminifera, and macrophyte assemblages in a coastal marsh: implications for greater paleo-sea level resoluton.

Patterson, R.T. , Guilbault, J.-P., Hutchinson, I., Clague, J.J.

Micropaleontology, (2000) v. 46 (4), p. 299-244.


Abstract

 Researchers generally use only one type of plant or animal to study a particular marsh. Consequently, it has been impossible to directly compare zonations obtained using different groups between sites. To facilitate such comparison, cluster analysis of foraminiferal, diatom, and macrophyte data collected in transects from a tidal marsh at Zeballos, northwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, was carried out. These analyses yielded three, six, and four mostly elevation-controlled assemblage zones, respectively. Physical parameters such as salinity and oxygen concentration affect the various taxa differently, resulting in significantly different assemblage boundaries between groups. A composite analysis of all groups yielded an assemblage zonation very similar to that obtained with the macrophytes alone. Although fewer assemblage zones were resolved with the composite analysis than with the diatom data alone, fewer sample misclassifications resulted in more precise elevation determinations. A second composite analysis using only foraminiferal and diatom data, which is more useful to paleo-sea level researchers, also gave four elevation controlled assemblage zones, although assemblage zone elevational boundaries differed slightly from those obtained with data from all groups. Our results will permit researchers working on diatoms, foraminifera or macrophytes to calibrate their zonations thus making it easier for workers in different fields to compare their results.


Oxygen Level Control on Foraminiferal Assemblage Distribution in Effingham Inlet, Vancouver Island, British Columbia

Patterson, R.T. , Guilbault, J.-P., and Thomson, R.E.

Journal of Foraminiferal Research, (2000) 30: 321-335.
 


July 25, 2015from Effingham Inlet, southwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to assess the oceanographic controls on benthic foraminiferal distribution. The resultant proxy data will be used to interpret cores collected throughout the basin, and assess the causes of periodic variation in fish populations over time.

Seven foraminiferal assemblages were recognized with the primary controlling factors being oxygen content, and proportion of organic matter in the sediment. The estuarine Buliminella Assemblage characterizes well-oxygenated environments with high levels of terrestrial plant matter. This assemblage disappears when oxygen levels fall beneath suboxic levels of 40 µM/kg. The Buccella Assemblage, dominated in part by attached forms and islandiellids, is typical of well-oxygenated bank environments in the region. The Psammosphaera Assemblage is related to the lower salinity and variable conditions present in the shallow water where it occurs. The Stainforthia-Nonionella Assemblage characterizes one well-oxygenated environment outside the inlet. The Stainforthia-Bolivinellina Assemblage is typical of suboxic/dysoxic conditions (10-40 µM/kg) in the outer basin. The Stainforthia Assemblage, is identified from dysoxic environments of deepest parts of the outer basin. A gradation between the Stainforthia-Bolivinellina Assemblage and the Stainforthia Assemblage is significant as a whole range of suboxic/dysoxic/anoxic conditions are detectable, potentially permitting recognition of even subtle variations in paleoceanographic/ atmospheric circulation. The Stainforthia-Buccella Assemblage was recovered from the least oxygenated area of Effingham Inlet under fully anoxic (with H2S) conditions; it provides evidence that even the most isolated portions of Effingham Inlet are periodically oxygenated.


Assessment of arcellacea (thecamoebian) assemblages, species and strains as contaminant indicators in variably contaminated James Lake, north Eastern Ontario.

Patterson, R.T. and Kumar, A.

Journal of Foraminiferal Research, (2000) 30: 310-320


Abstract

 Conditions in James Lake vary from uncomtaminated and nearly neutral pH conditions through most of the lake, to extremely low pH conditions (2.1 in places) contaminated with Fe, Al and SO4 adjacent to an abandoned pyrite mine near the lake outlet. Six assemblages representative of distinct arcellacean habitats were recognized in sediment-water interface samples collected in the lake using Q-mode Cluster Analysis. R-Mode cluster analysis of this distributional data corroborates previous results indicating that arcellacean strains from within the same species are useful for discriminating environments.

Cucurbitella tricuspis dominates most samples and had to be deleted from analysis to determine benthic faunal relationships. This species is seasonally planktic and thus readily transported; it should not be considered in intralake studies. Arcella vulgaris overwhelmingly dominates extremely hostile low pH environments (<5.5) near the old mine site in samples where Shannon Diversity Index values of <1.000 are recorded. The highly variable pH in James Lake permitted the determination of precise boundary conditions for distribution of this species. These results indicate that Difflugia protaeiformis "claviformis" is an ideal indicator of industrial contamination under higher pH conditions. The Difflugia protaeifronis "amphoralis" and "acuminatea" strains are more closely linked to uncontaminated muddy substrates characterized by high proportions of diatoms, a probably important food source. The presence of Lesquerasia spiralis seems to be partially linked to substrate type with greater numbers typically found in coarser sediments.


Use of arcellacea to gauge levels of pollution and remediation of industrially polluted lakes

Patterson, R.T. and Kumar, A.

in Martin, R.E. (ed) Environmental Micropaleontology, v. 15 of Topics in Geobiology, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publication, (2000) p. 257-278.


Abstract

 Arcellaceans are microscopic testate rhizopods found in a large number of freshwater and brackish environments. Their agglutinated shells, cemented in an organic matrix, are almost impervious to dissolution. Arcellaceans are ideal for statistical analysis because they are very abundant in Recent and late Quaternary sediments (several hundred per cc). Recent research in lakes contaminated by mine tailings in northeastern Ontario, Canada has indicated that they are sensitive indicators of a number of anthropogenic environmental factors including pH and heavy metal contamination. In particular, their asexual reproductive mode results in the production of environmentally influenced "strains" that are particularly useful in identifying distinctive chemically polluted and remediated benthic environments in lakes. Arcellaceans have a simple morphology, making them easy to identify. They occur in materials that are simple to prepare for examination, making them cost effective indicators of both long and short-term environmental change in lacustrine environments.


Evidence for periodicity and nonlinearity in a high-resolution fossil record of long-term evolution.

Prokoph, A, Fowler, A.D., and Patterson, R.T.,

Geology (2000) 28: 867-870.


Abstract

 The application of new signal analysis techniques provides increased insight into the study of the fossil record and processes of evolution. The fossil record of 622 planktic foraminifera contains data from 200 stratigraphic stages of the past 127 m.y. Time-series analyses (wavelet and Fourier transform) of the planktic foraminifera fossil record were used to discern periodic components in long-term evolution. The correlation function analysis was used to distinguish between random and deterministic behavior of the fossil record. The analyses show that stationary approximately 30 m.y. periodicity and complex deterministic patterns occur in the long-term planktic foraminifera evolution, in particular in the extinction record. Our results suggest that the occurrence of intense diversity fluctuations with 3-10 m.y. periodicity after major extinction events may be attributed to nonlinear, self-organized evolutionary response to the availability of new ecospace. This coupled nonlinear-periodic scenario may explain the repetitive appearance of similar morphotypes in approximately 30 m.y. intervals.

Keywords: foraminifera, evolution, fossil record, periodicity, self-organization.


Utility of arcellaceans (thecamoebians) as paleolimnological indicators in tropical settings: Lake Sentani, Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

Dalby, A.P., Kumar, A., Moore, J.M. and Patterson, R.T.

Journal of Foraminiferal Research (2000) 30: 135-142.


Abstract

Arcellacean (thecamoebian) assemblages recovered from Lake Sentani, a large tropical lake southwest of Jayapura, Irian Jaya, Indonesia, are characterized by low diversity and low abundances. Dominated by Centropyxis aculeata and Arcella vulgaris, this fauna is similar to those indicative of stressed environments (brackish conditions, high levels of industrial contaminants) in temperate regions. However, neither condition exists in Lake Sentani. Previous work has determined that the lake is oligomictic, characterized by weak circulation with turnover occurring every few years. Prolonged isolation of the lake bottom produces progressively reduced oxygen levels and results in reduced productivity amongst benthic organisms. The feeble stratification that exists here creates reduced oxygen levels at depth providing a likely explanation of the stressed arcellacean fauna. The oligomictic conditions observed here and the resultant fauna are widespread and are characteristic of a large proportion of tropical lakes around the world. As the low bottom water oxygen conditions will have a serious impact on most benthic organisms in these lakes, other limnological signals including anthropogenic contamination will be masked. This is a disappointing result as the utility that had been developed for the group as a limnological indicator in temperate lakes does not appear to apply in a significant proportion of low latitude lakes.


Differential diagenesis of sedimentary components and the implications for strontium isotope analysis of carbonate rocks

Reinhardt, E.G., Cavazza, W., Patterson, R.T., and Blenkinsop, J.

Chemical Geology (2000) 164: 331-343.


Abstract

Geochemical analyses of various components (foraminifera, coccoliths and siliciclastic fractions) of limestone and marl samples from the marine Trubi Formation (Early Pliocene) of southern Italy revealed subtle diagenetic contamination. The coccolith fraction is altered from its original value both in its trace element (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, Fe/Ca, Mn/Ca, Na/Ca all were higher) and isotopic ( 87Sr/ 86Sr, &delta;18O, &delta;13C) composition. Coccolith 87Sr/ 86Srvalues (limestones 0.709010; marls 0.708951) are lower than those of coeval Early Pliocene seawater (0.709025--60 [Farrell, J.W., Clemens, S.C., Gromet, L.P., 1995. Improved chronostratigraphic reference curve of Late Neogene seawater 87Sr/ 86Sr. Geology 23, 403--406]) and similar to the 87Sr/ 86Srvalues of Messinian evaporites (0.70887 to 0.70896 [Müller, D.W., Mueller, P.A., 1991. Origin and age of the Mediterranean Messinian evaporites: implications from Sr isotopes. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 107, 1-12]). Foraminiferal calcite is unaltered and retains its elemental and isotopic composition, with 87Sr/ 86Srvalues (0.709052) within the range for Early Pliocene seawater. However, unaltered 87Sr/ 86Srvalues were obtained only when the foraminifera were cleaned in acid to remove all contaminating coccoliths. Simple hand-picking and ultrasonic cleaning in water is inadequate to remove adhering coccoliths and may result in erroneous 87Sr/ 86Srvalues being quoted.

Keyword(s): Foraminifera; Sr isotopes; Trace elements; Stable isotopes; Diagenesis


Arcellaceans (Thecamoebians): new tools for monitoring long and short term changes in lake bottom acidity.

Kumar, A., and Patterson, R.T.

Environmental Geology (2000) 39: 689-697.


Abstract

James Lake, northeastern Ontario, Canada, has been impacted by the dumping of waste rock from a pyrite mine. High levels of Fe, Al and SO4 and low pH (2.0-5.5) are recorded in the lake. The configuration of the lake and current direction result in contaminated areas being restricted to the southwestern portion of the lake. Near neutral pH and low metal levels are recorded elsewhere. Analysis of arcellacean faunas from the lake indicate that one species, Arcella vulgaris, is able to thrive in even the most hostile areas of the lake. The absence of other arcellaceans indicative of contaminated substrates in higher pH lakes, such as centropyxids and Difflugia protaeiformis strains, suggests that pH is the dominant control over this assemblage. Analysis of arcellaceans from a core at the site indicates that contamination and acidification (pH values < 5.5) problems in James Lake have existed for at least 1300 years, clearly predating mining activity. Prior to that time high proportions of centropyxid species indicate less acid conditions (pH >5.5) prevailed, but a stressed environment existed for several thousand years. The recognition that Arcellacean faunas can now be used to characterize both low and high pH industrially, and naturally contaminated environments, provides an important new paleolimnological tool.


Application of a Three-Dimensional Color Laser Scanner to Paleontology: An Interactive Model of a Juvenile Tylosaurus sp. Basisphenoid-Basioccipital.

Lyons, P.D., Patterson, R.T. , and Rioux, M.

Palaeontologia Electronica (2000) 3.2: 16 p.


Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) modeling has always been an important part of paleontological research and interpretation though digital reproductions of fossils are a recent phenomena. A highly accurate, interactive, 100 micron resolution, 3D, digital model of a fossilized basisphenoid-basioccipital from a juvenile Tylosaurus sp. mosasaur was generated using a 3D laser scanner and manipulated using VRML and InnovMetric polygon files. This 3D model supports varying levels of magnification depending on the initial scan resolution and the amount of post-production polygon reduction. The generation of these 3D models is relatively simple because the software and technology for their generation is relatively mature. At present, complex 3D models require powerful computers in order to manipulate their computer graphic substructures. But, as computer technology improves, digital 3D scanning could prove invaluable for creating and sharing virtual copies of fossil material. Primary results of this study indicate that for most paleontological applications a 100 micron scan resolution is acceptable.

Key Words: Mosasaur, Three-dimensional (3D), Model, Virtual Reality, VRML


1999 Abstracts

Taphonomy of tidal marsh foraminifera: implications of surface sample thickness for high-resolution sea-level studies

Patterson, R.T., Guilbault J.-P., and Clague, J.J.

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, (1999) 149:199-211.


Abstract

 Previous research has shown that intertidal foraminiferal faunas can be used to document Holocene relative sea-level change and large prehistoric earthquakes. Applications like these, however, require an understanding of the impact of infaunal habitat and taphonomic processes on foraminiferal assemblages. To evaluate these effects, we analyzed surface sediment samples collected along a transect across a tidal marsh at Zeballos on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Samples of the uppermost 10 cm of sediment in the marsh contain foraminiferal assemblages that permit recognition of a greater number of elevation-controlled marsh assemblages than samples of the top centimeter, which are generally used in sea-level studies. This is because the upper 10 cm contain most infaunal foraminifera species, whereas the top centimeter commonly lacks some of these species. A 10-cm thickness is somewhat arbitrary, but most foraminiferal taphonomic biasing occurs in the top 10 cm of the marsh.

Keyword(s): ; taphonomy; foraminifera; sea level; tidal marsh; British Columbia


Assessment of a Sr Isotope (87Sr/86Sr) Vital Effect in Marine Taxa from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas

Reinhardt, E.G., Blenkinsop, J. and Patterson, R.T.,

Geo-Marine Letters, (1999)18 (3):241-246.


Abstract

 Abstract Data from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas, confirms the hypothesis that there are no vital effects with the uptake of Sr isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) at the present mass spectrometer resolution [±2x10-5 (2)]. Our data set contains analyses of 40 samples derived from 37 different calcareous taxa inhabiting a wide range of carbonate subenvironments (i.e., reefal, intertidal, supratidal, mangrove). The mean value of our analyses was 0.709179 with a standard deviation of 2.4x10-5 (2) which was very close to the long-term uncertainty of the strontium isotope methodology [±2.0x10-5 (2)] and to the widely reported 87Sr/86Sr value of seawater, which clusters around 0.709175.


Marine saline ponds as sedimentary archives of sea level and climate variation in the Late Holocene: an example along a carbonate platform margin, Bahamas

Dix, G.R., Patterson, R.T., and Park, L.E.

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, (1999) 150:223-246.
 


Abstract

 A 1500-year, late Holocene history of coastal and lacustrine carbonate sedimentation is preserved in shallow ponds on Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas. Details of environmental change have been extracted by integrating lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy (macrobiota, foraminifers, ostracodes), and chemical stratigraphy (C, O isotopes of foraminiferal and molluscan skeletal carbonate; MgO wt% of ostracode calcite) with a well defined 14C AMS radiocarbon chronology. Carbonate deposition began within physically restricted, euryhaline coastal embayments, with several pronounced changes in salinity defined by biotic and calculated salinity variation (from MgO wt percent in shells of Cyprideis americana). By about 700--740 yr B.P., embayment closure occurred possibly related to changed longshore deposition associated with sea level rise and/or regional change in climate (previously documented). With closure, the initial euryhaline foraminifer assemblage was replaced by a predominant hypersaline biofacies (e.g., Triloculina sp.); with progressive basin fill, ostracode assemblages, calculated salinities, and variation in abundance of the gastropod Cerithidea sp. may resolve higher-order (and some extreme) salinity fluctuations throughout the remaining history of saline pond development. Foraminiferal isotope stratigraphy is compatible with that expected for hydrologically closed lake basins. Carbonate accumulation was effectively shut-down <200 years ago, replaced by stromatolitic growth. Present-day salinities vary according to water balance governed by rainfall and evaporation. A centuries-scale (300--400 year) flux of abraded (reworked), marine-derived bioclasts, admixed with skeletal remains of indigenous biota, is also preserved in these ponds. Allochthonous sediment was transported by hurricane storm surges or related to abrupt transgressive events superimposed on an overall gradual rise in global sea level. We discuss evidence for both as controls on sedimentation. Our study illustrates that saline ponds on Bahamian islands are excellent sedimentary archives of local, regional, and possibly global paleoclimatic events of late Holocene age.

Keyword(s): ; Bahamas; Holocene; lacustrine sedimentation; stratigraphy; changes of level

 


Evidence for late Holocene tsunamis at Catala Lake, British Columbia

Clague, J.J., Hutchinson, I., Mathewes, R.W., and Patterson, R.T.

Journal of Coastal Research, (1999) v. 15, p. 45-60


Abstract

 Thin sheets of sand and gravel occur within a sequence of fine organic-rich sediments at Catala Lake, off the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The uppermost of these coarse sheets thins and fines landward away from the lake outlet, consistent with deposition by a tsunami. This coarse sediment sheet has been radiocarbon dated to some time after AD 1655; we suggest that it was deposited in 1700 by the tsunami of the last great earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone. Abundant plant macrofossils, derived from nearby forest, are present within and on top of the sand and gravel layer, suggesting that the tsunami transported forest-floor litter, mosses, and seeds into Catala Lake. Deposition coincided with abrupt changes in diatom and foraminifera communities in the lake. The post-tsunami diatom assemblage is more marine in character than the immediate pre-tsunami assemblage, and the foraminifera community became more diverse after the tsunami. These changes are due either to coseismic subsidence or erosion of the outlet by the tsunami, which increased tidal exchange between the sea and the lagoon that was the precursor to Catala Lake. Older coarse sediment layers in cores from Catala Lake and the bordering marsh may also be tsunami deposits. One of these layers is about 1,000 years old and dates to the time of the penultimate great Cascadia earthquake.

Keywords: tsunamis, paleoseismology, earthquakes, sedimentology, pollen, diatoms, foraminifera, Cascadia subduction zone, British Columbia.


Special Issue: Taphonomy as a Tool in Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction and Environmental Assessment

Martin, R., Patterson, R.T., Goldstein, S., and Kumar, A. (eds)

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (1999) Volume 149, Issues 1-4.


Table of Contents for Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
Volume 149, Issue 1-4, 01-June-1999

Robert A. Gastaldo, James R. Staub, A mechanism to explain the preservation of leaf litter lenses in coals derived from raised mires, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 1-14

D. Uhl, V. Mosbrugger, Leaf venation density as a climate and environmental proxy: a critical review and new data, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 15-26

Markus Bertling, Taphonomy of trace fossils at omission surfaces (Middle Triassic, East Germany), Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 27-39

Roberto Barbieri, Sara D'Onofrio, Romana Melis, Frances Westall, r-Selected benthic foraminifera with associated bacterial colonies in Upper Pleistocene sediments of the Ross Sea (Antarctica): implications for calcium carbonate preservation, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 41-57

Sacha de Rijk, Simon Troelstra, The application of a foraminiferal actuo-facies model to salt-marsh cores, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 59-66

H.C. de Stigter, G.J. van der Zwaan, L. Langone, Differential rates of benthic foraminiferal test production in surface and subsurface sediment habitats in the southern Adriatic Sea, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 67-88

W. Roland Gehrels, Orson van de Plassche, The use of Jadammina macrescens (Brady) and Balticammina pseudomacrescens Brsnnimann, Lutze and Whittaker (Protozoa: Foraminiferida) as sea-level indicators, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 89-101

Susan T. Goldstein, G. Todd Watkins, Taphonomy of salt marsh foraminifera: an example from coastal Georgia, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 103-114

Scott P. Hippensteel, Ronald E. Martin, Foraminifera as an indicator of overwash deposits, Barrier Island sediment supply, and Barrier Island evolution: Folly Island, South Carolina, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 115-125

B.P. Horton, The distribution of contemporary intertidal foraminifera at Cowpen Marsh, Tees Estuary, UK: implications for studies of Holocene sea-level changes, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 127-149

Frans J. Jorissen, Ingrid Wittling, Ecological evidence from live--dead comparisons of benthic foraminiferal faunas off Cape Blanc (Northwest Africa), Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 151-170

Kevin Kennington, Simon K. Haslett, Brian M. Funnell, Offshore transport of neritic diatoms as indicators of surface current and trade wind strength in the Plio-Pleistocene eastern equatorial Pacific, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 171-181

John W. Murray, Elisabeth Alve, Taphonomic experiments on marginal marine foraminiferal assemblages: how much ecological information is preserved?, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 183-197

R. Timothy Patterson, Jean-Pierre Guilbault, John J. Clague, Taphonomy of tidal marsh foraminifera: implications of surface sample thickness for high-resolution sea-level studies, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 199-211

B.L. Sherrod, Gradient analysis of diatom assemblages in a Puget Sound salt marsh: can such assemblages be used for quantitative paleoecological reconstructions?, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 213-226

Sally E. Walker, Susan T. Goldstein, Taphonomic tiering: experimental field taphonomy of molluscs and foraminifera above and below the sediment--water interface, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 227-244

I.D. Campbell, Quaternary pollen taphonomy: examples of differential redeposition and differential preservation, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 245-256

Gail L. Chmura, Alexei Smirnov, Ian D. Campbell, Pollen transport through distributaries and depositional patterns in coastal waters, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 257-270

Y. Fernandez-Jalvo, L. Scott, C. Denys, Taphonomy of pollen associated with predation, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 271-282

Marina L. Aguirre, Ester A. Farinati, Taphonomic processes affecting late Quaternary molluscs along the coastal area of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina, Southwestern Atlantic), Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 283-304

George R. Clark II, Organic matrix taphonomy in some molluscan shell microstructures, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 305-312

Stephen Kershaw, Frank R. Brunton, Palaeozoic stromatoporoid taphonomy: ecologic and environmental significance, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 313-328

Heather A. Moffat, David J. Bottjer, Echinoid concentration beds: two examples from the stratigraphic spectrum, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 329-348

James Nebelsick, Taphonomic comparison between Recent and fossil sand dollars, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 349-357

Alan H. Cutler, Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Ralph E. Chapman, Environmental information in a recent bone assemblage: roles of taphonomic processes and ecological change, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 359-372

Manuel Dom'nguez-Rodrigo, Flesh availability and bone modifications in carcasses consumed by lions: palaeoecological relevance in hominid foraging patterns, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 373-388

Elizabeth A. Hadly, Fidelity of terrestrial vertebrate fossils to a modern ecosystem, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 389-409

Ana Cristina Pinto Llona, Peter J. Andrews, Amphibian taphonomy and its application to the fossil record of Dolina (middle Pleistocene, Atapuerca, Spain), Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (149)1-4 (1999) pp. 411-429


Taphonomy as an environmental science

Martin, R.E., Goldstein, S.T., and Patterson, R.T.

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, (1999) 149:vii-viii.


Full Text

Taphonomy As An Environmental Science

Geology is the study of the history of the Earth and its Life. Paleontology, of course, is no different, and neither is taphonomy: taphonomists regularly infer taphonomic pathways and histories of biogenic particles. Taphonomy, paleontology, and geology are, then, historical sciences.

Geology, paleontology, and taphonomy are also 'environmental' sciences because their practitioners study ancient settings and their modern analogs. But unlike, say, physicists, chemists, or most ecologists, who often employ a reductionist approach over very short time scales (geologically speaking), Earth scientists deal with processes that typically occur over time scales much longer than those observable over one or a few human generations. The rates of these processes may be so imperceptible that the environment appears constant to us, when in fact it is changing. It is this perspective on time that is arguably the most valuable contribution that the Earth sciences have made to mankind's view of itself and its surroundings, and makes paleontology so eminently suitable to confront the environmental problems that now face society (Frodeman, 1995; Martin, 1998, 1999).

Until recently, the fortunes of paleontology, especially micropaleontology, have been tied, like an umbilical cord, to the fortunes of oil. Over the last decade, however, the applied Earth sciences have moved from an emphasis on resource exploration and exploitation toward one of resource conserva-tion and management. In this respect, paleontology holds a tremendous advantage over ecology in that most ecologic studies are of too short a duration to assess the long-term (time-averaged) impact of environmental perturbations (natural or anthropogenic) on biological communities (Martin, 1991, 1995); the only recourse is the fossil record (e.g., Jackson, 1992; Aronson and Precht, 1997). Moreover, without the ability to reconstruct an undisturbed system in the historical record, studying the effects of anthropogenic disturbance has little meaning.

The surface mixed layer or Taphonomically Active Zone (TAZ) of sediment acts as a low pass filter, primarily through bioturbation and dissolution, that damps high frequency signals before their incor-poration into the historical record. Typically, time-averaging of fossil assemblages results from sedimentation rates that are too slow to prevent mixing of ecological signals into accumulations of longer duration and lower temporal resolution. Although viewed negatively by most workers, time-averaging is actually an advantage, since short-term noise is damped (Behrensmeyer and Kidwell, 1985). For example, modern macroinvertebrate death assemblages from soft-bottom habitats are comparable to repeated (and expensive!) biological surveys in assessing the 'long-term' dynamics (hundreds of years) of biological communities (Peterson, 1977; Kidwell and Bosence, 1991; Kidwell and Flessa, 1995).

But natural systems also evolve,so they havea history, and any so-called laws derived from human observation and experimentation are constrained by the rules, the boundary conditions or context, of history. For example, although many calcareous hardparts dissolve according to the laws of chemistry and physics, they may in fact have different histories: shells of different taxa may be degraded by different pathways in the same taphofacies because of differences in size, mineralogy, and microstructure. Thus, the dynamics of shell input and loss must be evaluated for specific settings and taxa before further generalizations regarding taphonomy are assumed, which, unfortunately, has all too often been the case (Martin, 1998, 1999). How would differences in taphonomic histories (e.g., shell input, sedimentation rate, tectonic setting) affect the paleoenvironmental interpretation of ancient environments if one were attempting to compare preanthropogenic pristine systems with modern disturbed ones, especially when the pre-anthropogenic (historical) record is to be used as a yardstick for measuring anthropogenic disturbance? To ignore history is to ignore a whole untapped field of paleontology that will make paleontologists employable. To be sure, assessment of taphonomic histories is a daunting task that has only just begun and many of the current approaches to modeling will require extensive testing and revision, but we have only to learn from the process. Precise understanding of taphonomic processes and filters bears strongly on the future of paleontology.

This volume grew out of a Cushman Foundation Symposium entitled 'Taphonomy of Microfossils: Paleoenvironmental Analysis and Environmental Assessment' at the 1995 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting in New Orleans that was designed to consider the issues discussed above. Considering the great advances made in taphonomic research in all areas of paleontology we decided to broaden the scope of coverage for this theme issue to include other disciplines in the field of taphonomy. The investigations range from those on invertebrate microfossils to plants and vertebrates in a broad range of environments, all demonstrating the utility of taphonomy in paleoenvironmental interpretation.

References
Aronson, R.B., Precht, W.F., 1997. Stasis, biological disturbance, and community structure of a Holocene coral reef. Paleobiol-ogy 23, 326?346.
Behrensmeyer, A.K., Kidwell, S.M., 1985. TaphonomyÕs contri-butions to paleobiology. Paleobiology 11, 105?119.
Frodeman, R., 1995. Geological reasoning: Geology as an in-terpretive and historical science. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 107, 960?968.
Jackson, J.B.C., 1992. Pleistocene perspectives on coral reef community structure. Am. Zool. 32, 719?731.
Kidwell, S.M., Bosence, D.W.J., 1991. Taphonomy and time-averaging of marine shelly faunas. In: Allison, P.A., Briggs, D.E.G. (Eds.), Taphonomy: Releasing the Data Locked in the Fossil Record. (Topics in Geobiology.) Plenum, New York, NY, pp. 116?209.
Kidwell, S.M., Flessa, K.W., 1995. The quality of the fossil record: Populations, species, and communities. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 26, 269?299.
Martin, R.E., 1991. Beyond biostratigraphy: Micropaleontology in transition? Palaios 6, 437?438.
Martin, R.E., 1995. The once and future profession of micropa-leontology. J. Foraminiferal Res. 25, 372?373.
Martin, R.E., 1998. One Long Experiment: Scale and Process in Earth History. Columbia Univ., New York.
Martin, R.E., 1999. Taphonomy: A Process Approach. Cam-bridge Univ. Press (in press).
Peterson, C.H., 1977. The paleoecological significance of unde-tected short-term temporal variability. J. Paleontol. 51, 976? 981.
 

 

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