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Publications | 2002 - 2004

Research Publications (2002 - 04)

2004

Patterson, R.T., Prokoph, A., Chang, A.S. 2004. Late Holocene sedimentary response to solar and cosmic ray activity influenced climate variability in the NE Pacific. Sedimentary Geology. 172, p. 67-84.

Abstract

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Prokoph, A.,Patterson, R.T. 2004. Application of wavelet and discontinuity analysis to trace temperature changes: Eastern Ontario as a case study. Atmosphere Ocean, v. 42, p. 201-212.

Prokoph, A., and Patterson, R.T. 2004. From depth-scale to time-scale: transforming of sediment image color data into high-resolution time-series. In: Francus, P. (ed.) Image Analysis, Sediments and Paleoenvironments. Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research Series 7, chapter 8, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 143-164.

Abstract

Patterson, R.T., Fowler, A.D., and Huber, B., 2004. Evidence of Hierarchical Organization in the Planktic Foraminiferal Evolutionary Record. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 34 (2), p. 85-95. (Please note: There are some transcription errors in the published biostratigraphic chart that have been corrected in a revised biostratigraphic chart. Please do not use the chart from the original publication. A complete description of the corrections is included in the errata document Patterson et al. 2005. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 35, p. 83). The revised chart is also available from the Cushman Foundation data repository at: http://www.cushmanfoundation.org/jfr/jfrdata.html

Abstract

pdf

Patterson, R.T., Prokoph A.,Wright, C., Chang, A.S., Thomson, R.E., Ware, D.M., 2004. Holocene Solar Variability and Pelagic Fish Productivity in the NE Pacific. Palaeontologia Electronica, v. 6 (1). 17 pp.

Abstract

Gehrels, W.R., Milne, G.A., Jason R. Kirby, J.R., Patterson, R.T., Belknap, D.F., 2004. Late Holocene sea-level changes and isostatic crustal movements in Atlantic Canada. Quaternary International, v. 120, p. 79-89.

Abstract

Patterson, R.T., Gehrels, W.R., Belknap, D., Dalby, A.P. 2004. The distribution of salt marsh foraminifera at Little Dipper Harbour New Brunswick, Canada: Implications for development of widely applicable transfer functions in sea-level research. Quaternary International. v. 120, p. 185-194

Abstract

2003

Chang, A.S., Patterson, R.T., and McNeely, R. 2003. Seasonal Sediment and Diatom Record from Late Holocene Laminated Sediments, Effingham Inlet, British Columbia, Canada, Palaios. v. 18, p. 477-494.

2002

Patterson, R.T. and Kumar, A., 2002. A review of current testate rhizopod (thecamoebian) research in Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 180, p. 225-251.

Abstract

Kumar, A., and Patterson, R.T. 2002. Dinoflagellate Cyst Assemblages In Effingham Inlet, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 180, p. 187-206.

Abstract

Patterson, R.T., Dalby, A. , Kumar, A. and, Henderson, L.A., 2002, Arcellaceans as indicators of land use change: settlement history of the Swan Lake area, Ontario as a case study. Journal of Paleolimnology, v. 28, p. 297-316.

Abstract

Patterson, R.T. and Kumar, A. 2002. Post-Glacial paleoceanographic history of Saanich Inlet British Columbia based on foraminiferal proxy data. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 32, p. 110-125.

Abstract

pdf

Patterson, R.T., Wright, C., Chang, A.S., Taylor, L.A., Lyons, P.D., Dallimore, A.,Kumar, A. 2002, Atlas of common squamatological (fish scale) material in coastal British Columbia, and an assessment of the utility of various scale types in paleo-fish population reconstruction. Palaeontol. Electronica, v. 4 (2), 88 pp.

Abstract


2004 Abstracts



Late Holocene sedimentary response to solar and cosmic ray activity influenced climate variability in the NE Pacific,

Patterson, R.T., Prokoph, A., Chang, A.S.

Sedimentary Geology (2004) 172, p. 67-84.

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Marine-laminated sediments along the NE Pacific coast (Effingham inlet, Vancouver Island) provide an archive of climate variability at annual to millennial scales. A 7.75-m portion of piston core TUL99B-03 was deposited during a ≈ 3045-year interval [≈1440-4485 years before present (yBP)] under primarily anoxic conditions. Darker clay laminae were deposited under higher precipitation conditions in winter, and diatom-dominated laminae were laid down when marine productivity was higher in the spring through autumn.

Wavelet transform and other time-series analysis methods were applied to sediment color (i.e. gray-scale values) line-scans obtained from X-ray images and compared with global records of cosmogenic nuclides 14C and 10Be, as well as the Ice Drift Index (hematite-stained grains) record to detect cycles, trends, and nonstationarities in the climate and sedimentary pattern. Our results show that the marine sedimentary record in the NE Pacific responded to abrupt changes and long-term variability in climate that can be linked to external forcing (e.g., solar and cosmic irradiance). Specifically, a strong cooling in the NE Pacific at ≈3550±160 yBP can be correlated to a weakening of high-frequency (50-150 years) pulses in sun activity at the Gleissberg cycle band, similar to what occurred at the onset of the "Little Ice Age" at ≈1630 AD.

Three intervals of unusually low sun activity at ≈ 2350, 2750, and ≈ 3350 yBP are characterized by thick, clay-rich annual sedimentation that we interpret as representative of unusually wet conditions. These intervals of higher precipitation conditions may have been related to a regional intensification of the Aleutian Low (AL) caused by an eastward migration of the Center of Action (COA) of the AL, which occurs during intervals of solar minima. Dryer conditions in the region occur when the COA of AL migrates westward and the COA of the North Pacific High (NPH) migrates northward during intervals of solar maxima. A cyclicity of 50-85, 33-36, and 22-29 years in the sediment color record, lamination thickness, and 14C cosmogenic nuclide, characterized the relatively warm interval from 3550 to 4485 yBP. This record is similar to that of present-day low- and high-frequency variants of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Aleutian Low.


Application of wavelet and discontinuity analysis to trace temperature changes:

Prokoph, A.,Patterson, R.T.

Atmosphere-Ocean. (2004) v. 42, p. 201-212.

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Regression and wavelet analysis have been employed to trace and quantify variation in temporal patterns (e.g., cycles, and trends) between the instrument climate records of urban Ottawa, and nearby rural areas in eastern Ontario. Possible links between observed climate change at these stations and possible natural and anthropogenic drivers were also investigated. Regression analysis indicates that the temperature in Ottawa increased, on average, at a rate of >0.010C/year in comparison to adjacent rural areas through the last century. Wavelet analysis (WA) shows that this relative urban warming trend was primarily manifested in the form of multidecadal and interseasonal cycles that are likely attributable to gradual increased winter heating in Ottawa (?eheat island effects?f) associated with population growth. We estimate that the 10C increase in Ottawa temperature is equivalent to ~400,000 increase in population size. In contrast, interannual variability correlates well between rural and urban areas with about the same temperature amplitudes.


From depth scale to time scale: transforming sediment image color data into a high-resolution time series

Prokoph, A.,Patterson, R.T.

Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research Series 7: Image Analysis, Sediments and Paleoenvironments. (2004) chapter 8, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 143-164.

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High-resolution time-scales are important for the precise correlation of spatially distributed geological records, and further development of process-oriented models used to predict climate change and other terrestrial processes. The extraction of digital line-scan data from images of laminated sediments provides a tool for the rapid and non-invasive analysis of sedimentary records, including sediment and ice cores, and tree ring growth patterns.

The four-step semi-automatic methodology is based on wavelet and other transforms to transform digital line-scan image data from laminated sedimentary successions, from a depth-scale into a time-scale using narrow-bandwavelet analysis with Morletwavelet as the "mother" function, and additional linear transform and interpolation algorithms. Using the same method high-resolution time-series of lamination (i.e., varve) thickness and sediment color are extracted, providing useful information on paleoenvironmental fluctuations during the sedimentation.

With this methodology, it is possible to (1) extract temporal variability in sedimentation rate and climate proxy signal (e.g., image color, mineral composition) even if the wavelengths of the signals overlay each other, (2) extract a high-resolution time scale, and (3) extract original temporal variability in periodicity, abrupt changes and phase shift with?`2% accuracy error. Furthermore, it is possible to connect samples (e.g., geochemical, paleontological) taken from the sedimentary section precisely to the constructed time-scale.

The extraction of high-resolution time-scales using variations in image colors from laminated sediments is only dependent on:

- the presence of a well-defined extraterrestrial periodic cyclicity (e.g., annual rotation of the Earth around the sun) in the entire sedimentary succession to be analyzed,

- continuity of this signal in the digitised sediment image or succession of images,

- a requirement for at least 4 data points (pixel) covering the thinnest lamina, and

- the requirement of one or more tie-ages (e.g., radiocarbon dating) to fit the relative counts into an absolute time-scale.


Evidence of Hierarchical Organization in the Planktic Foraminiferal Evolutionary Record

Patterson, R.T., Fowler, A.D., and Huber, B.

Journal of Foraminiferal Research, (2004) v. 34, p. 85-95.

Return to Bibliography

The Wavelet Transform was used to analyze the evolutionary record of planktic foraminifera to distinguish specific structure not previously resolvable. Both the speciation and extinction wavelets are characterized by a major singularity at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary when there was a total breakdown in the interconnectedness of ecosystems related to sharply reduced diversity following the Chicxulub impact event. The speciation wavelet is also characterized by an interval consisting of a hierarchical array comprised of five orders of bifurcation related to repeated iterative radiation of species from the Albian to Maastrichtian. These planktic foraminiferal extinction patterns were related to quasi-periodic orogenic cycles of the Cretaceous that in turn produced episodic mantle CO2-degassing, oceanic volcanism and anoxia, and sea level fluctuations. We therefore hypothesize that the hierarchical structure we observe is a reflection of this process in an otherwise stochastic system.

(Please note: There are some transcription errors in the published biostratigraphic chart that have been corrected in a revised biostratigraphic chart. Please do not use the chart from the original publication. A complete description of the corrections made is included in the errata document Patterson et al. 2005. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 35, p. 83). The revised chart is also available from the Cushman Foundation data repository at: http://www.cushmanfoundation.org/jfr/jfrdata.html


Holocene Solar Variability and Pelagic Fish Productivity in the NE Pacific

Patterson, R.T., Prokoph A.,Wright, C., Chang, A.S., Thomson, R.E., Ware, D.M.

Palaeontologia Electronica, (2004) v. 6 (1), 17 pp.

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Many cycles recognized in the ocean sedimentary record have been linked to variable solar irradiance. The results presented here show that this conclusion can be extended to include the paleoproductivity of fish stocks in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Predominantly anoxic sediments from Effingham Inlet, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, collected from a 693 cm segment of a 1125 cm piston core, archive a high-resolution late Holocene (≈1,800-4,700 years BP) record of climate-change and paleoproductivity in the North American Coastal Upwelling Domain (CUD). Fish scale abundances of northern anchovy and Pacific herring were measured in the cores Spectral analysis (SA) and continuous (Morlet) wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of the dataset were used to examine fish productivity cycles and their variability within the absolute time scale. Anchovy and herring populations cycle independently at decadal to centennial scales, with especially well-defined variability at the stationary Gleissberg solar cycle (≈75-90 years here). Several other cycles are non-stationary, changing frequency following transition of the regional climate to a higher rainfall phase that impacted coastal oceanic dynamics ~ 3,400 years ago.


Late Holocene sea-level changes and isostatic crustal movements in Atlantic Canada. Quaternary International

Gehrels, W.R., Milne, G.A., Jason R. Kirby, J.R., Patterson, R.T., Belknap, D.F.

Quaternary International, (2004) v. 120, p. 79-89.

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It has long been recognised that sea levels along the shores of Atlantic Canada have been rising rapidly during the Holocene in response to isostatic crustal movements. New sea-level data for the Bay of Fundy coast of southern New Brunswick (Little Dipper Harbour) and the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia (Chezzetcook Inlet) show that late Holocene average rates of sea-level rise in these areas have been 1.0 and 2.5 m per 1000 yr, respectively. Numerical model calculations suggest that the high rates of sea-level rise are due to crustal subsidence produced by the combined effects of Laurentide ice loading (forebulge collapse) and ocean loading of the Scotian shelf. Although ice loading is the dominant contributor to the regional sea-level pattern, ocean loading is also important, contributing up to ~40% of the total crustal subsidence in some areas. Tide gauges record rates of sea-level rise during the 20th century that are 0.7-1.9 mm/yr higher than late Holocene trends, with the highest residuals occurring in the Bay of Fundy.


The distribution of salt marsh foraminifera at Little Dipper Harbour New Brunswick, Canada: Implications for development of widely applicable transfer functions in sea-level research

Patterson, R.T., Gehrels, W.R., Belknap, D., Dalby, A.P.

Quaternary International, (2004) v. 120, p. 185-194.

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A stepwise linear regression analysis was carried out on both 0-1 and 0-10 cm surface samples from a transect across the marsh at Little Dipper Harbour, New Brunswick. Only the 0-1 cm surface samples produce statistically reliable results (R -2 = 0.705; R' -2 = 0.609). These results are in sharp contrast to those obtained from British Columbia marshes where infaunal habitat and taphonomic biasing result in 0-10 cm samples producing the best results using stepwise linear regression. The fundamental difference in the apparent preferred habitats of marsh foraminifera in these areas pose difficulties for researchers attempting to develop transfer function training sets that can be applied over wide areas in paleo-sea-level research.


2003 Abstracts

Seasonal Sediment and Diatom Record from Late Holocene Laminated Sediments

Chang, A.S., Patterson, R.T., and McNeely, R.

Palaios, (2003) v. 18, p. 477-493

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Laminated diatomaceous sediments from Effingham Inlet, British Columbia, are described and classified in this study. Analyses were made from ten 15-cm long sediment slabs, spanning the last 5500 years, and 52 thin sections from which 408 sedimentary couplets were identified. Microfossil analysis and radiocarbon dating of the sediments reveal that the laminae are annually deposited (i.e., varves), with couplets containing a terrigenous and diatomaceous lamina pair. Terrigenous laminae, averaging 0.56 mm in thickness, consist of silt, organic debris, and robust diatoms, and are deposited during the winter months. Diatomaceous laminae, with a mean thickness of 1.85 mm, can be divided into three component laminae of differing compositions that reflect changing seasonal conditions during the spring, summer, and autumn months. This seasonal succession is seen in 76% of the couplets examined, recurring year after year with variations in couplet thickness and species occurrence. Couplets lacking the succession may represent deposition during periods of low diatom production or years with low seasonality (e.g., El Nino). Variability in couplet styles corroborates climate trends derived from pollen and Neoglacial studies. Sediments older than 4000 yr BP (calibrated radiocarbon dates) contain couplets with a distinct annual succession, and are interpreted to have been deposited during conditions thatwerewarmer than today. Sediments deposited between 2000 to 4000 yr BP also contain couplets with an annual succession, but the laminated intervals are interrupted by brief nonlaminated intervals. The sediments were likely deSeptember 22, 2006 younger than 2000 yr BP were deposited during modern conditions. This study illustrates the effective utility of an ultra high-resolution analysis of laminated sediment records, once proxy indicators are defined, and is important for understanding post-glacial climate evolution along the coast of British Columbia and throughout the northeast Pacific Ocean during the late Holocene.


2002 Abstracts

A review of current testate rhizopod (thecamoebian) research in Canada

Patterson, R.T. and Kumar, A.

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, (2002) v. 180, p. 225-251.

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Thecamoebians are a diverse group of testate rhizopods present in a variety of lacustrine and terrestrial habitats. Among this group certain agglutinating forms, primarily arcellacea, have tests that are highly resistant to decay and thus fossilize well. Although the Canadian fossil record of thecamoebians extends back as far as the Carboniferous the group is particularly common in Quaternary lacustrine and peatland environments from temperate to Arctic regions of the country.

Research on thecamoebians during the past few years has resulted in great progress on realizing the potential of this group as an important new class of paleoenvironmental indicator. Applied research on thecamoebian faunas in Canada has emphasized aspects of paleolimnology (e.g. eutrophication, pH, temperature, oxygen levels), monitoring of land use changes, monitoring effectiveness of remediation efforts in contaminated substrates, paleo-sea level reconstruction, paleo-water table assessment and paleoclimatic reconstruction.


Dinoflagellate Cyst Assemblages In Effingham Inlet, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

Kumar, A., and Patterson, R.T.

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, (2002) v. 180, p. 187-206.

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A palynological study of surface samples from Effingham Inlet, southwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, was carried out to assess environmental and oceanographic controls on the distribution of dinoflagellate cyst species. Generally dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from all samples are dominated by Operculodinium centrocarpum sensu Wall and Dale, 1966, Spiniferites spp.and round brown (protoperidinioid) cysts. The differences among the assemblages are mainly in relative and absolute abundance of various taxa, presence and absence of various protoperidinioid taxa, species diversity (Shannon Diversity Index), dinoflagellate cyst concentration in the samples, and ratio of terrestrial to marine palynomorphs. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in the two sub-basins of this inlet are quite distinct, with the inner basin characterized by lower diversity and the outer basin being characterized by higher diversity due to the occurrence of several protoperidiniacean species.Primary productivity in this inlet is enhanced by periodic incursion of nutrient-rich surface water from the Pacific Ocean which is related to coastal upwelling.Primary productivity is higher in the outer basin than the inner basin.


Arcellaceans as indicators of land use change: settlement history of the Swan Lake area, Ontario as a case study

Kumar, A., and Patterson, R.T.

Journal of Paleolimnology, (2002) v. 28, 297-316.

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Arcellaceans have been used as indicators of a variety of paleolimnological conditions including pH, eutrophication, oxygen level, and heavy metal contamination, but there has only been limited application of the group to climate and land-use change research. The limnological evolution of Swan Lake in southwestern Ontario was documented using arcellaceans as proxies, and compared to the results of a palynological analysis, with which it closely correlated. The palynological record documents the rapid disappearance of forest by around 1850 as the area was cleared for agriculture and settlements. The change was characterized by a shift in the palynological record from the Woodland to High Diversity assemblages. Similarly the arcellacean fauna changed from the Pre-European Settlement Assemblage to the distinctive low diversity, stressed environment European Deforestation Assemblage. The introduction of high-yield chemical fertilizers in the postWorldWar II era, and the resultant eutrophication of the lake, was clearly recognizable in the palynological record as indicated by the dramatic increase in the algae Pediastrum (High Nutrient Assemblage). This change in farming practice was also identifiable with arcellacean proxies, as indicated by the appearance of the algalphilic Eutrophication Assemblage. The arcellacean Ecologically Destabilized Assemblage dominated the lake for short intervals during the transition between the Pre-European Settlement and European Deforestation assemblages and again at the transition between the European Deforestation and Eutrophication Assemblages, indicative of periods of ecological destabilization as the lake adjusted to new trophic inputs. A stressed environment arcellacean Ecologically Destabilized Assemblage found in a portion of the core estimated to have been deposited between AD 1350 and AD 1700 may provide evidence of an earlier phase of deforestation associated with Huron Indian agricultural practices. The close correlation between the palynological and arcellacean proxy data clearly demonstrates the potential of arcellaceans as land-use change proxies, and indicates that changes in land-use had an almost immediate impact on the Swan Lake ecosystem. This observation raises concerns about the impact that rapid urbanization is having on the environmentally sensitive Oak Ridges Moraine watershed, of which Swan Lake is a part.


Post-Glacial paleoceanographic history of Saanich Inlet British Columbia based on foraminiferal proxy data

Patterson, R.T. and Kumar, A.

Journal of Foraminiferal Research, (2002) v. 32, p. 110-125

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Five benthic foraminiferal biofacies characterize the late Pleistocene to Recent succession at ODP Sites 1033B and 1034B (Leg 169S) in Saanich Inlet, southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. These faunas document three distinct paleoceanographic phases in the evolution of this inlet. From the latest Pleistocene, ≈ 14,000 years BP, to the earliest Holocene the distribution of benthic foraminifera (Cribroelphidium excavatum (5), Islandiella norcrossi (4), and Nonionella stella (3) biofacies) in Saanich Inlet was strongly controlled by the influence of cold, low salinity waters associated with deglaciation. Early Holocene sediments are characterized by the Stainforthia feylingi Biofacies (2). Despite a shallower sill depth at the entrance of Saanich than exists today sedimentological and foraminiferal evidence indicate that bottom waters were oxygenated. The foraminiferal fauna indicates that oxygen levels varied from a minimum low oxic (1.5-3 ml/l [67-133 µM) level early on to suboxic (0.3-1.5 ml/l [13.3-67 µM]) conditions up section where sediments become progressively more laminated. During the early Holocene air temperatures in the region were up to 4°C warmer, and it was much drier than at present. The resultant reduced freshwater flow into the southern Strait of Georgia was conducive to the free exchange of Saanich Inlet bottom waters with those of well-oxygenated Haro Strait. After 7000 years BP the climate in the region cooled and, as the influence of freshwater from Strait of Georgia increased, oxygenation of Saanich bottom waters became a rare occurrence. Finely laminated sediments characterized mid-Holocene to Recent sediments in the inlet reflecting the development of full anoxic conditions at depth. The Lobatula fletcheri - Buccella frigida Biofacies (1) characterizing this interval is allochthonous and derived by down-slope transport from shallower, more oxygenated regions of Saanich Inlet.


Atlas of common squamatological (fish scale) material in coastal British Columbia, and an assessment of the utility of various scale types in paleo-fish population reconstruction

Patterson, R.T., Wright, C., Chang, A.S., Taylor, L.A., Lyons, P.D., Dallimore, A.,Kumar,

Palaeontol. Electronica, (2002) v. 4 (2), 88 pp.

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Squamatological (fish scale) material from 48 common species found in coastal waters of British Columbia is presented. Fish-scale remains of extant species are well-preserved in Holocene core sediments in various anoxic basins along the coast of British Columbia. These remains are of considerable value in assessing natural variation in fish populations over time. Comparative micrographs of modern fish scales as well as an assessment of their preservation potential is provided. Photographs of various scales preserved in the sedimentary record (e.g., herring, rockfish, sardines, surfperch) are provided and discussed in the context of the taphonomic alteration that typically occurs after burial. This monograph?\the first atlas of fish-scale material available for the northeast Pacific?\will help resolve identification problems for future fish taxonomists, paleoceanographers, and fisheries-oriented researchers.


 

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Updated: April 16, 2014