References for Books, Journal Articles and Theses about Procrastination

This information was originally compiled by Allan Blunt and was updated most recently by Jianghe Niu (Last updated August 29, 2000).. Please help us to keep this page up to date by sending your references to Dr. Timothy A. Pychyl.

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Aguilar, J. (1995). Procrastination development of a structural model of Procrastination. Revista Mexicana de Psicologia, 12, 15-21.

Aldarondo, F. (1993). A preliminary investigation of a two-motive theory of procrastination. Masters Abstracts, 32, 1221.

Ambainis, A., Jain, S. & Sharma, Acs.nus.edu. (1999). Ordinal mind change complexity of language identification. Theoretical Computer Science, 220, 323-343.

Anderson, R. (1987). Envy and jealousy. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 1, 49-81.

Barton, E. J., & Ascione, F. R. (1978). The proctoring component of personalized instruction: A help or a hindrance? Journal of Personalized Instruction, 3, 15-22.

Beck, B.K., Koons, S.R. & Milgrim, D.L. (2000). Correlates and Consequences of Behavioral Procrastination: The Effects of Academic Procrastination, Self-Consciousness, Self-Esteem and Self-Handicapping (special issue). Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 3-14.
 
Bernstein P (1994) Procrastination - a value or a cost. Journal of Portfolio Management, 20, No.2, 1.
 
Berzonsky, M. D. (1992). Identity style and coping strategies. Journal of Personality, 60, 771-788.
 
Beswick, G., Rothblum, E. D., & Mann, L. (1988). Psychological antecedents of student procrastination. Australian Psychologist, 23, 207-217.
 
Bijou, S. W., Morris, E. K., & Parsons, J. A. (1976). A PSI course in child development with a procedure for reducing student procrastination. Journal of Personalized Instruction,1, 36-40.
 
Birner, L. (1993). Procrastination: Its role in transference and countertransference. Psychoanalytic Review, 80, 541-558.
Blankenship, K.L., & Whitley, B.E. (2000). Relation of general deviance to academic dishonesty. Ethics & Behavior, 10, 1-12.
 
Blatt, S. J., & Quinlan, P. (1967). Punctual and procrastinating students: A study of temporal parameters. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31, 169-174.
 
Bliss, E. (1983). Doing it now. A 12-step program for curing procrastination and achieving your goals. New York: Scribner.

Blunt, A.K. & Pychyl, T.A. (2000). Task aversiveness and procrastination: a multi-dimensional approach to task aversiveness across stages of personal projects. Personality and Individual Difference, 28, 153-167.
 
Blunt, A., & Pychyl, T.A. (1998). Volitional action and inaction in the lives of undergraduate students: State orientation, boredom and procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 24837-846.
 
Boice, R. (1989). Procrastination, busyness and bingeing. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 27, 605-611.
 
Born, D. G., & Moore, M. C. (1978). Some belated thoughts on pacing. Journal of Personalized Instruction, 3, 33-36.
 
Braam, C. A. (1994). "I'll do it tomorrow". A radical behavioral analysis of procrastination. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55, 1221.
 
Bridges, K.R. & Roig, M. (1997). Academic Procrastination and Irrational Thinking: A Reexamination with Context Controlled. Personality and Individual Differences,22(6),941-944.
 
Briody, R. (1979). An exploratory study of procrastination. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 590.

Brocas, I., & Carrillo, J.D. (2000). The value of information when preferences are dynamically inconsistent. European Economic Review, 44, 1104-1115.
 
Brooke, R. R., & Ruthven, A. J. (1984). The effects of contingency contracting on student performance in a PSI class. Teaching of Psychology, 11, 87-89.
 
Brown, R. T. (1991). Helping students confront and deal with stress and procrastination. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 6, 87-102.

Brownlow, S. & Reasinger, R.D. (2000). Putting off Until Tomorrow What is Better Done Today: Academic Procrastination as a Function of Motivation Toward College Work (special issue). Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 15-34.
 
Burka, J.B. & Yuen, L.M. (1983). Procrastination: Why you do it and what to do about it. Reading, PA:Addison-Wesley.

Burns, L.R., Dittmann, K., Nguyen, N. & Mitchelson, J.K. (2000). Academic Procrastination, Perfectionism, and Control: Association with Vigilant and Avoidant Coping (special issue). Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 35-46.
 
Chissom, B., & Iran-Nejad, A. (1992). Development of an instrument to assess learning strategies. Psychological Reports, 71, 1001-1002.

Chown, M. (2000). What's the hurry? Forget that New Year's resolution to stop procrastinating. New Scientist, 165, 5-5
 
Claiborn, C. D., Ward, S. R., & Strong, S. R. (1981). Effects of congruence between counselor interpretations and client beliefs. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 28, 101-109.
 
Clark, J. L. & Hill, O. W. (1994). Academic procrastination among African-American college students. Psychological Reports, 75, 931-936.
 
Coglizer, A. L. (1987). Profiles of procrastination and self-concept in college students and implications for counseling practice. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 2539.

Conti, R. (2000). Competing Demand and Complimentary Motives: Procrastination on Intrinsically and Extrinsically Motivated Summer Projects (special issue). Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 47-60.

Cook, P.F. (2000). Effects of counselors' etiology attributions on college students' procrastination. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 352-361.

Cook, P.F. (2000). Effects of counselors' etiology attributions on college students' procrastination. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 352-361.
 
Coote, E. A. (1987). Procrastination in the workplace: a study of the dispositional and situational determinants of delay behavior at work. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49, 1196.
 
Crosbie, J., & Kelly, G. (1993). A computer-based Personalized System of Instruction course in applied behavior analysis. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 25, 366-370.
 
Damsteegt, D. C., & Christoffersen, J. (1982). Objective self-awareness as a variable in counseling process and outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29, 421-424.
 
Defruyt,F., & Mervielde, I. (1996). Personality and Interests as Predictors of Educational Streaming and Achievement, European Journal of Personality, 10(5),405-425.
 
Dell, D. M. (1973). Counselor power base, influence attempt, and behavior change in counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 20, 399-405.

Dembo, M.H., & Eaton, M.J. (2000). Self-regulation of academic learning in middle-level schools. Elementary School Journal, 100, 473-490.
 
Devore, W. A. (1985). Paradoxical intervention: Effects in a short-term counseling situation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 2802.
 
Dowd, E. T., Hughs, S. L., Brockbank, L., Halpain, D. (1988). Compliance-based and defiance-based intervention strategies and psychological reactance in the treatment of free and unfree behavior. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 35, 370- 376.
 
Effert, B. R., & Ferrari, J. R. (1989). Decisional procrastination: Examining personality correlates. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4, 151-161.
 
Ellis, A. (1987). Integrative developments in rational-emotive therapy (RET). Journal of Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy, 6, 470-479.
 
Ellis, A. & Knaus, W. (1977). Overcoming Procrastination.Institute for Rational Living: New York.

Fee, R.L. & Tangney, J.P. (2000) Procrastination: A Means of Avoiding Shame or Guilt (special issue). Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 167-184.

Ferrari, J.R. (2000). Procrastination and Attention: Factor Analysis of Attention Deficit, Boredomness, Intelligence, Self-Esteem, and Task Delay Frequencies (special issue). Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 185-196.
 

Ferrari, J.R. & Scher, S.J. (2000). Toward an understanding of academic and nonacademic tasks procrastinated by students: The use of daily logs. Psychology in the Schools, 37, 359-366.

Ferrari, J.R., & Dovidio, J.F. (2000). Examining behavioral processes in indecision: Decisional procrastination and decision-making style. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 127-137.
 
Ferrari, J.R., & Tice, D.M. (2000). Procrastination as a self-handicap for men and women: A task-avoidance strategy in a laboratory setting. Huxham, M. (1999). Fatal inaction - It's time to stop procrastinating over nitrate pollution. New Scientist, 161, 47-47.

Ferrari, J.R., Harriott, J.S. & Zimmerman, M. (1999). The Social Support Networks of Procrastinators-Friends or Family in times of Trouble. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 321-331.
 
Ferrari, J. R. (1989). Reliability of academic and dispositional measures of procrastination. Psychological Reports, 64, 1057-1058
 
Ferrari, J. R. (1989). Self-handicapping by procrastinators: Effects of performance privacy and task importance. Doctoral dissertation, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY.
 
Ferrari, J. R. (1991). Compulsive procrastination: Some self-reported characteristics. Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association (1990, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), Psychological Reports, 68, 455-458.
 
Ferrari, J. R. (1991). Procrastination and project creation: Choosing easy, nondiagnostic items to avoid self-relevant information. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 619-628.
 
Ferrari, J. R. (1991). Self-handicapping by procrastinators: Protecting self-esteem, social-esteem, or both? Journal of Research in Personality, 25, 245-261.
 
Ferrari, J. R. (1991). A preference for a favorable public impression by procrastinators: Selecting among cognitive and social tasks. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 1233-1237.
 
Ferrari, J. R. (1992). Psychometric validation of two procrastination inventories for adults: Arousal and avoidance measures. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 14, 97-110.
 
Ferrari, J. R. (1992). Procrastination in the workplace: Attributions for failure among individuals with similar behavioral tendencies. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 315-319.
 
Ferrari, J. R. (1992). Procrastinators and perfect behavior: An exploratory factor analysis of self-presentation, self-awareness, and self-handicapping components. Journal of Research in Personality, 26, 75-84.
 
Ferrari, J. R. (1993). Christmas and procrastination: Explaining lack of diligence at a "real-world" task deadline. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 25-33.
 
Ferrari, J. R. (1994). Dyfunctional procrastination and its relationship with self-esteem, interpersonal dependency, and self-defeating behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 673-679.
 
Ferrari, J. R. (1995). Ego-identity and academic procrastination among university students. Journal of College Student Development, 36, 361-367.
 
Ferrari, J. R. (1995). Perfectionism cognitions with nonclinical and clinical samples. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10, 143-156.

Ferrari, J. R. (1995). Methods of procrastination and their relation to self-control and self-reinforcement: An exploratory study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10, 135-142.
 
Ferrari, J.R. (1997). Exploring the time-preferences of procrastinators: Night or day, which is the one? European Journal Of Personality, 11(3), 187-196.
 
Ferrari,J.R.,& Dividio, J.F. (1997) Some Experimental Assessments of Indecisives-Support for a Non-Cognitive Failures Hypothesis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality,12(2),527-538.
 
Ferrari, J. R., & Emmons, R. A. (1994). Procrastination as revenge: Do people report using delays as a strategy for vengeance? Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 539-544.
 
Ferrari, J. R., & McCown,W. (1994). Procrastination tendencies among obsessive-compulsives and their relatives. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 162-167.
 
Ferrari, J. R., & Olivette, M. J. (1993). Perceptions of parental control and the development of indecision among late adolescent females. Adolescence, 28, 963-970.
 
Ferrari, J. R. & Olivette, M. J. (1994). Parental authority and the development of female dysfunctional procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 28, 87-100.
 
Ferrari, J. R., Parker, J. T., & Ware, C. B. (1992). Academic procrastination: Personality correlates with Myers-Briggs types, self-efficacy, and academic locus of control. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7, 495-502.
 
Ferrari, J.R., Johnson, J.L., & McCown, W.G. (1995). Procrastination and task avoidance. New York, N.Y.: Plenum Press.
 
Ferrari,J.R.,Johnson,J.L.,& McCown,W.G. (1996). Procrastination and Task Avoidance, Theory, Research, and Treatment. Contemporary Psychology,41(7),698-699.
 
Ferrari,J.R., Johnson,J.L., McCown, W.G.& Ashforth,B.E. (1996). Procrastination and Task Avoidance, Theory, Research, and Treatment. Revue Canadienne Des Sciences De L Administration Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 13(2),182-183.

Ferrari, J.R., Keane, S.M., & Wolfe, R.N., & Beck B.L. (1998). The antecedents and consequences of academic excuse-making: Examining individual-differences in procrastination. Research In Higher Education, 39 (2), 199-215.
 
Flanagan, C. M. (1993). Treating neurotic problems that do not respond to psychodynamic therapies. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 44, 824-826.
 
Flett, G. L., Blankstein, K. R., Hewitt, P. L., & Koledin, S. (1992). Components of perfectionism and procrastination in college students. Social Behavior and Personality, 20, 85-94.
 
Froehlich, R. A. (1987). Descriptive study of general procrastination in a group-oriented treatment setting. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 1151.
 
Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449-468.
 
Frost, R. O., & Shows, D. L. (1993). The nature and measurement of compulsive indecisiveness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 683-692.
 
Gallagher, R. P. (1992). Student needs surveys have multiple benefits. Journal of College Student Development, 33, 281-282.
 
Galue, A. J. (1990). Perceived job ambiguity, predisposition to procrastinate, work-related information and experience: an investigation of procrastination behavior at work. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52, 555.
 
Gibson, D. L. (1983). The obsessive personality and the evangelical. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 2, 30-35.
 
Giovacchini, P. L. (1975). Productive procrastination: Technical factors in the treatment of the adolescent. Adolescent Psychiatry, 4, 352-370.
 
Goldner, E. (1989). Morita shinkeishitsu and eating disorders: Commonalities in cognitive processes. International Bulletin of Morita Therapy, 2, 3-11.
 
Grecco, P. R. (1984). A cognitive-behavioral assessment of problematic academic procrastination: Development of a procrastination self-statement inventory. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 640.
 
Greene, G. D. (1981). Dissertation procrastination. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 1548.
 
Green, L. (1982). Minority students' self-control of procrastination. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29, 636-644.
 
Guilfoyle, E. C. (1986). The effects of psychological reactance and paradoxical and self-directive forms of brief psychotherapy on procrastination. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 4327.
 
Hall, B. L. (1982). Hursch, Daniel-E. An evaluation of the effects of a time management training program on work efficiency. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 3, 73- 96.
 
Hall, G. S. (1986). Procrastination and leisure satisfaction. Masters Abstracts, 25, 260.
 
Han, S. (1993). A multivariate study of procrastination: cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors in prediction. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54, 2512.
 
Harriot, J. (1996). Distractibility, daydreaming, and self-criticalcognitions as determinants of indecision. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11, 337-344.
 
Harriot, J., & Ferrari, J. R. (1996). Prevalence of procrastination among samples of adults. Psychological Reports, 78, 611-616.
 
Harriott, J.S., Ferrari, J.R. & Dividio, J.F. (1996). Distractibility, Daydreaming, and Self Critical Cognitions as Determinants of Indecision. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11(2)337-344.

Harris, N. N., & Sutton, R. I. (1983). Task procrastination in organizations: A framework for research. Human Relations, 36, 987-995.
 
Havel, A. (1993). Differential effectiveness of selected treatment approaches to procrastination. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55, 1507.
 
Haycock, L. (1998) Procrastination in college students - the rule of self-efficacy and anxiety. Journal of Counselling and Development, 76, No.3, 317-324.
 
Haycock, L. A. (1993). The cognitive mediation of procrastination: an investigation of the relationship between procrastination and self-efficacy beliefs. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54, 2261.

Hess, B., Sherman, M.F. & Goodman, M. (2000). Eveningness Predicts Academic Procrastination: The Mediating Role of Neuroticism (special issue). Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 61-74.
 
High, D. M. (1993). Why are elderly people not using advance directives? Journal of Aging and Health, 5, 497-515.
 
Hill, M. B., Hill, D. A., Chabot, A. E., & Barrall, J.F. (1978). A survey of college faculty and student procrastination. College Student Journal, 12, 256-262.
 
Himmelberg, P. H. (1993). Interventions for procrastination: a comparison of contextualist and mechanistic approaches to psychotherapy. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55, 6713.
 
Hoffman-Graff, M. A. (1977). Interviewer use of positive and negative self-disclosure and interviewer-subject sex pairing. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 24, 184-190.
 
Hoffman, M. A., & Spencer, G. P. (1977). Effect of interviewer self-disclosure and interviewer-subject sex pairing on perceived and actual subject behavior. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 24, 383-390.
 
Hunsley, J. (1993). Treatment acceptability of symptom prescription techniques. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40, 139-143.
 
Hurley, L. K. (1986). The use of therapeutic metaphor to produce behavior change. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 4301.

Huxham, M. (1999). Fatal inaction - It's time to stop procrastinating over nitrate pollution. New Scientist, 161, 47-47.
 
Ishiyama, F. I. (1990). Japanese perspective on client inaction and procrastination: Morita therapy. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 13, 119-128.
 
Ishiyama, F. I. (1990). A Japanese perspective on client inaction: Removing attitudinal blocks through Morita therapy. Journal of Counseling and Development, 68, 566-570.

Jackson, T., Weiss, K.E. & Lundquist, J.J. (2000). Does Procrastination Mediate the Relationship between Optimism and Subsequent Stress (special issue)? Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 203-212.
 
Jain, S. & Sharma, A. (1997). Elementary Formal Systems, Intrinsic Complexity, and Procrastination. Information and Computation,132(1),65-84.
 
Jamieson, J. (1990). An application of Morita techniques in a university counseling center setting. International Bulletin of Morita Therapy, 3, 118-123.

Janssen, T., & Carton, J.S. (1999). The effects of locus of control and task difficulty on procrastination. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 160, 436-442.

Jiao, Q.G. & Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (1998). Perfectionism and Library Anxiety Among Graduate-Students. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 24, 365-371.

Johnson, E.M., Green, K.E. & Klueyer, R.C. (2000). Psychometric characteristics of the revised procrastination inventory. Research in Higher Education, 41, 269-279.
 
Jones, A. C. (1975). Grandiosity blocks writing projects. Transactional Analysis Journal, 5, 415.
 
Jones, C. H., Slate, J. R., Bell, S., & Saddler, C. D. (1991). Helping high school students improve their academic skills: A necessary role for teachers. High School Journal, 74, 198-202.
 
Kaplan, J.C. (1998). Molecular basis of procrastination: Cloning of a gene for help in decision making. Medicine Sciences, 14, 525-528.

Knaus, W.J. (2000). Procrastination, Blame, and Change (special issue). Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 153-166.
 
Knaus, W.J. (1998). Do it now: How to stop procrastinating (Revised edition). New York: John Wiley & Sons
 
Knaus, W.J. (1994). Change you life now: Powerful techniques for positive change. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
 
Knaus, W.J. (1985). Student burnout: A rationale emotive education treatment approach. In A. Ellis and M. Bernard (Eds.), Clinical applications of rational-emotive therapy. New York:Plenum.
 
Knaus, W.J. (1983). Children and low frustration tolerance. In A. Ellis & M. Bernard (Eds.), Rational-emotive approaches to the problems of childhood. New York: Plenum.
 
Knaus, W.J. (1983). How to conquer your frustrations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:Prentice Hall.
 
Knaus, W.J. (1982). The parameters of procrastination. In R. Greiger & I. Greiger (Eds.), Cognition and Emotional Disturbance, (pp. 174-196). New York: Human Sciences Press.
 
Knaus, W.J. (1982). How to get out of a rut. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
 
Knaus, W.J. (1979). Do it now: How to stop procrastinating. New York: Prentice-Hall.
 
Knaus, W.J. (1973). Overcoming procrastination. Rational Living, 8(2), 2-7.
 
Knaus, W.J., & Hendricks, C. (1986). The illusion trap. New York: World Almanac.
 
Krumboltz, J.(1993). Integrating career and personal counseling. Special Section: How personal is career counseling? Career Development Quarterly, 42, 143-148.
 
Kulik, J. A., Fulik, C., & Carmichael, K. (1974). The Keller plan in science teaching. Science, 183, 379-383.
 
Lambert, D. J. (1984). Impact of decisions on memory and behavior change in counseling for procrastination. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45, 2806.
 
Lamwers, L. L., & Jazwinski, C. H. (1989). A comparison of three strategies to reduce student procrastination in PSI. Teaching of Psychology, 16, 8-12.

Lasane, T.P., & Jones, J.M. (2000). When Socially Induced Temporal Myopia Interferes with Academic Goal-Setting (special issue). Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 75-86.
 
Larson, C. C. (1992). The effects of a cognitive-behavioral education program on academic procrastination. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 2530.
 
Lay, C. H. (1986). At last, my research article on procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 474-495.
 
Lay, C. H. (1987). A modal profile analysis of procrastinators: A search for types. Personality and Individual Differences, 8, 705-714.
 
Lay, C. H. (1987). Publication delay: An analysis of journal days, reviewer days, and author days to revision. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 19, 324-331.
 
Lay, C. H. (1988). The relationship of procrastination and optimism to judgments of time to complete an essay and anticipation of setbacks. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 3, 201-214.
 
Lay, C. H. (1990). Working to schedule on personal projects: An assessment of person-project characteristics and trait procrastination. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5, 91-103.
 
Lay, C. H. (1992). Trait procrastination and the perception of person-task characteristics. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7, 483-494.
 
Lay, C. H. (1994). Trait procrastination and affective experiences: Describing past behavior and its relation to agitation and dejection. Motivation and Emotion, 18, 269-284.
 
Lay, C. H. (1996). Trait procrastination, anxiety,and dilatory behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 61-67.
 
Lay, C. (1997). Explaining lower-order traits through higher-order factors: The case of trait procrastination, conscientiousness and the specificity dilemma. European Journal of Personality, 11(4),267-278.
 
Lay, C. (1998) The relation of trait procrastination to the big 5 factor counscientiousness- an assessment with primary-junior school children based on self-reported scales. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, No.2 , 187-193.
 
Lay,C.H.,& Brokenshire R. (1997) Conscientiousness, Procrastination, and Person-Task Characteristics in Job Searching by Unemployed Adults. Current Psychology,16(1),83-96.
 
Lay, C. H., & Burns, P. (1991). Intentions and behavior in studying for an examination: The role of trait procrastination and its interaction with optimism. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 605-617.
 
Lay, C. H., Edwards, J. M., Parker, J. D., & Endler, N. S. (1989). An assessment of appraisal, anxiety, coping, and procrastination during an examination period. European Journal of Personality, 3, 195-208.
 
Lay, C. H., Knish, S., & Zanatta, R. (1992). Self-handicappers and procrastinators: A comparison of their practice behavior prior to an evaluation. Journal of Research in Personality, 26 242-257.
 
Lay, C. H., & Schouwenburg, H. C. (1993). Trait procrastination, time management, and academic behavior. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8, 647-662.
 
Lay,C. & Silverman, S. (1996). Trait Procrastination, Anxiety,and Dilatory Behavior.Personality and Individual Differences, 21(1),61-67.
 
Lerner, S. I. (1986). A comparison of two strategies for strategic intervention. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 3115.
 
Liberty, H. J. (1993). The relationship between extraversion and time of data collection Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 835-836.
 
Lloyd, M. E., & Zylla, T. M. (1981). Self-pacing: Helping students establish and fulfill individualized plans for pacing unit tests. Teaching of Psychology, 8, 100-103.

Lonergan, J.M. & Maher, K.J. (2000). The Relationship Between Job Characteristics and Workplace Procrastination as Moderated By Locus of Control (special issue)? Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 213-224.
 
Lopez, F. G., & Wambach, C. A. (1982). Effects of paradoxical and self-control directives in counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29, 115-124.
 
Mann,L. Burnett, P. Radford, M. & Ford, S. (1997). The Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire An Instrument for Measuring Patterns for Coping with Decisional Conflicts. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making,10(1)1-19.

Martin, K.A. & Brawley, L.R. (1999). Is the self-handicapping scale reliable in non-academic achievement domains? Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 901-911.
 
Martin, T. R. (1996). Personality correlates of depression and health symptoms: A test of a self-regulation model. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 264-277.
 
Martin,T.R., Flett,G.L., Hewitt, P.L., Krames,L., & Szanto,G. (1996). Personality-Correlates of Depression and Health Symptoms-A Test of a Self Regulation Model.Journal of Research in Personality, 30(2), 264-277.
 
Mazur, J.E. (1998). Procrastination by pigeons with fixed interval response. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 69, 185-197.
 
Mazur, J.E. (1996). Procrastination by Pigeons-Preference for Larger More Delayed Work Requirements.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 65(1)159-171.

McCown, W. (1986). Behaviour of chronic college-student procrastinators: An experimental study. Social Science & Behavioural Documents, 17, 133.
 
McCown, W., Carise, D., & Johnson, J. (1991). Trait procrastination in self-described adult children of excessive drinkers: An exploratory study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 147-151.
 
McCown, W., & Johnson, J. (1991). Personality and chronic procrastination by university students during an academic examination period. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 413-415.
 
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McCown, W., Petzel, T., & Rupert, P. (1987). An experimental study of some hypothesized behaviors and personality variables of college student procrastinators. Personality and Individual Differences, 8, 781-786.
 
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