Researchers have identified a number of different types of academic procrastination, such as low conscientiousness and anxiety-related procrastination (e.g., Ferrari et al.,1995) . Although all of the various types are of interest in understanding students' experience of procrastination, it is beyond the scope of this web page to review each individually. Instead, we focus on the treatment of anxiety-related procrastination. Despite this seemingly narrow focus, the treatment strategies that we discuss are applicable to all types of academic procrastination.
A key element in both understanding academic procrastination and its treatment is the cognitive component of procrastination. Academic procrastinators typically make five cognitive distortions which promote and maintain their task avoidance. According to Ferrari et al. (1995), these five cognitive distortions are :
These cognitive misconceptions are not necessarily causal, they may be covariates of procrastination. More research is required to address this issue. Regardless of the cause, by changing the cognitive distortions, researchers argue that there is likely to be a change in behaviour. The typical treatment, in fact, employs this strategy with a cognitive-behavioral focus as well as an emphasis on time-management skills.
This approach has been used by Ferrari and his colleagues (e.g., Ferrari et al.,1995) who have developed an approach to the treatment of academic procrastination known as "Doing It Now." In this program, the goal is to teach students how to cope with cognitive distortions involving self efficacy (e.g. it's hopeless, too late, not smart enough) and avoidance (e.g. I'll do it later, I perform better under pressure). The focus is to change cognitive misconceptions by having students challenge their cognitive distortions (e.g. irrational thoughts and fears) in either an individual or a group format. This is achieved through the use of cognitive self-statements, relaxation therapy, and visualization geared towards increasing the frequency and concentration of the academic effort.
Another method used in conjunction with the ones previously stated is to have the procrastinator develop a task plan and assign concrete deadlines for task completion.
Although Ferrari et al. have recently used the "Doing It Now" approach, the term has a history in the work related to procrastination. According to Dr. William Knaus (1996; personal communication), the earliest reference to the term in print is by Alan Lakein (How to Get Control of Your Time and Your Life). In 1979, Dr. Knaus published a self-help book titled Do It Now: How to Stop Procrastinating. This book is currently under revision and due to be rereleased in early 1998. Based on Dr. Knaus's clinical and cognitive orientation, the latest release of his book takes more of an awareness-action position. He uses a five-stage change process that describes the process often followed by people involved in a cognitive therapy (Knaus, 1996; personal communication).
Here are some strategies that may help you cope with procrastination. These suggestions have been taken from chapter nine Treatment of Academic Procrastination in College Students in Procrastination and Task Avoidance: Theory, Research and Treatment by Ferrari, Johnson & McCown (1995).
If you are interested in learning more about how to cope with procrastination, you may want to read some or all of the following references. For a more complete list of research in the area see the complete research bibliography
On-line Self Help Book (A self-help book available free with a section of chapter 4 about Behavior, Motivation & Self-Control dealing with Procrastination)
Burka, J.B. & Yuen, L.M. (1983). Procrastination: Why you do it and what to do about it. Reading, PA:Addison-Wesley.
Ellis, D., (1984). Becoming a master student. College Survival, Inc
Ferrari, J.R., Johnson, J.L., & McCown, W.G. (1995). Procrastination and task avoidance. New York, N.Y.: Plenum Press.
Knaus, W.J. (1997 - in press). Do it now: How to stop procrastinating (Revised edition). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Knaus, W.J. (1994). Change you life now: Powerful techniques for positive change. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Knaus, W.J. (1985). Student burnout: A rationale emotive education treatment approach. In A. Ellis and M. Bernard (Eds.), Clinical applications of rational-emotive therapy. New York:Plenum.
Knaus, W.J. (1983). Children and low frustration tolerance. In A. Ellis & M. Bernard (Eds.), Rational-emotive approaches to the problems of childhood. New York: Plenum.
Knaus, W.J. (1983). How to conquer your frustrations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:Prentice Hall.
Knaus, W.J. (1982). The parameters of procrastination. In R. Greiger & I. Greiger (Eds.), Cognition and Emotional Disturbance, (pp. 174-196). New York: Human Sciences Press.
Knaus, W.J. (1982).How to get out of a rut. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Knaus, W.J. (1979). Do it now: How to stop procrastinating. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Knaus, W.J. (1973). Overcoming procrastination. Rational Living, 8(2), 2-7.
Knaus, W.J., & Hendricks, C. (1986). The illusion trap. New York: World Almanac.
McCown, W., & Roberts, R. (1994). A study of academic and work-related dysfunctioning relevant to the college version of an indirect measure of impulsive behavior. Integra Technical Paper 94-28, Radnor, PA: Integra, Inc.
Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 504-510.
The following web sites provide some useful information pertaining to the treatment of procrastination.