Psychology 2100: Introduction to Social Psychology

Warren Thorngate, Professor
Psychology Department, Carleton University
1125 Colonel By Drive
Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6
Canada
e-mail = warren_thorngate@carleton.ca

copyright 1999-2006 by Warren Thorngate, all rights reserved


Lecture 8: Social Motives and Interdependence 

What is Social Interdependence?


Class demonstrations:

What do these situations have in common?



Daniel (1948) and his rats

Each of 24 rats trained separately to



Deutsch & Krauss (1960) and their telephone operators




Each operator in 16 pairs began with $4.00


Results:

Average gain when no threat (gate): + $1.02

Average loss when Acme had unilateral threat:

Average loss when both Acme and Bolt had threat:

Conclusions:


Social Dilemmas


What is a dilemma? A problem that has 2+ solutions, each with at least one good and at least one bad feature. 


The Prisoner's Dilemma Game

The PDG can take many forms. Here is the most common:


Prisoner's Dilemma

Person 2

X = Left column

Y = Right column


Person 1

A = Top row

P1 gets 5

P2 gets 5

P1 gets 0

P2 gets 8

B = Bottom row

P1 gets 8

P2 gets 0

P1 gets 1

P2 gets 1






Returning to the Prisoner's Dilemma…

Prisoner's Dilemma

Person 2

X = Left column

Y = Right column


Person 1

A = Top row

P1 gets 5

P2 gets 5

P1 gets 0

P2 gets 8

B = Bottom row

P1 gets 8

P2 gets 0

P1 gets 1

P2 gets 1


 


Messick, Thorngate and McClintock studies (late 1960s): decomposed Prisoner's Dilemma -- examples below





Motives that can be distinguished by people's choices:


Some results


Maki, Thorngate and McClintock studies (late 1960s): predicting choice behaviours


Relevance of findings to real world? Social comparison revisited






When inequity occurs, social pressures will increase to restore equity